Project Planning and Control

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Presentation Transcript

Project Planning and Control : 

Project Planning and Control Main issues: How to plan a project? How to control it?

System’s view of project control : 

2 System’s view of project control Irregular variables: cannot be controlled (e.g. experience of the user) Goal variables: things one wants to achieve (e.g. minimize downtime, lowest cost) Control variables: things that can be varied (e.g. project staffing, tools to be used) Distribution of variables over categories is not rigid (staffing may be irregular, cost can be a control variable, etc) You have to know the category of each variable

System’s view of project control, conditions : 

3 System’s view of project control, conditions Goals of the system are known Sufficient control variety Information on state, input and output of the system Conceptual control model: knowledge of how and extent to which variables depend on and influence each other

Classes of project characteristics : 

4 Classes of project characteristics Product, process, and resource characteristics Interested in degree of certainty Product certainty: Clear requirements, known upfront: product certainty is high User requirements change frequently: product certainty is low Process certainty: E.g., much knowledge about effect of control actions: high E.g., use of unknown tools: low Resource certainty: Depends on availability of appropriately qualified personnel

Archetypical control situations : 

5 Archetypical control situations Realization problem: all certainties are high Ideal situation, just make sure work gets done Allocation problem: resource certainty low, others high Major issue: controlling capacity Design problem: product certainty high, others low How to design the project (milestones, personnel, assign responsibilities, etc) Exploration problem: all certainties low Major issue: get commitment of all people involved

Control situation: realization : 

6 Control situation: realization Primary goal in control: Optimize resource usage, efficiency and schedule Coordination/management style: Standardization, hierarchy, separation style Development strategy: Waterfall Cost estimation: Models, guard process

Control situation: allocation : 

7 Control situation: allocation Primary goal in control: Acquisition, training personnel Coordination/management style: Standardization of product and process Development strategy: Waterfall Cost estimation: Models, sensitivity analysis

Control situation: design : 

8 Control situation: design Primary goal in control: Control of process Coordination/management style: Standardization of process Development strategy: Incremental Cost estimation: Expert, sensitivity analysis

Control situation: exploration : 

9 Control situation: exploration Primary goal in control: Maximize results, lower risks Coordination/management style: Mutual adjustment, commitment, relation style Development strategy: Incremental, prototyping, agile Cost estimation: Agile, risk analysis, provide guidance

Risk management : 

10 Risk management Risk management is project management for adults In software development, we tend to ignore risks: We’ll solve the problem on time Requirements will be stable No one will leave the project …

Top ten risk factors : 

11 Top ten risk factors Personnel shortfall Unrealistic schedule/budget Wrong functionality Wrong user interface Goldplating Requirements volatility Bad external components Bad external tasks Real-time shortfalls Capability shortfalls

Risk management strategy : 

12 Risk management strategy Identify risk factors Determine risk exposure (probability * effect) Develop strategies to mitigate risks Avoid, transfer, or accept Handle risks

Categories of risks : 

13 Categories of risks Level of control Importance low high low high customers and users (C1) scope and requirements (C2) environment (C4) execution (C3) Order of handling: first C3, then C2, then C4 and C1

Techniques for project planning and control : 

14 Techniques for project planning and control Work breakdown structure (WBS) PERT chart Gantt chart Agile planning and control

Work Breakdown Structure : 

15 Work Breakdown Structure

PERT chart : 

16 PERT chart

Gantt chart : 

17 Gantt chart

Why task-oriented planning is problematic : 

18 Why task-oriented planning is problematic Activities never finish early Parkinson’s law: work fills the time available Lateness is passed down the schedule If either design or coding is late, subsequent testing will be late Tasks are not independent If design takes more time, so will implementation

Agile planning factors : 

19 Agile planning factors Estimate value of features e.g. the MoSCoW way Cost of implementing features Cost of doing it now versus cost of doing it later New knowledge acquired First do features that bring a lot of new knowledge Risk removed by implementing feature First high-value-low risk features, then low risk-low value features Avoid high value-high risk features