Computer Languages

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Computer Languages By: Pinakesh Negi Class VI

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EVOLUTION To write a program for a computer, we must use a computer language. A computer language is a set of predefined words that are combined into a program according to predefined rules ( syntax ). Over the years, computer languages have evolved from machine language to high-level languages .

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Type of Computer Languages

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Machine languages In the earliest days of computers, the only programming languages available were machine languages . Each computer had its own machine language, which was made of streams of 0s and 1s. The only language understood by a computer is machine language.

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Assembly languages The next evolution in programming came with the idea of replacing binary code for instruction and addresses with symbols or mnemonics. Because they used symbols, these languages were first known as symbolic languages. The set of these mnemonic languages were later referred to as assembly languages. The only language understood by a computer is machine language.

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High-level languages Although assembly languages greatly improved programming efficiency, they still required programmers to concentrate on the hardware they were using. The desire to improve programmer efficiency and to change the focus from the computer to the problem being solved led to the development of high-level languages. Over the years, various languages, most notably BASIC, COBOL, Pascal, Ada, C, C++ and Java, were developed.

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TRANSLATION Programs today are normally written in one of the high-level languages. To run the program on a computer, the program needs to be translated into the machine language of the computer on which it will run. The program in a high-level language is called the source program. The translated program in machine language is called the object program. Two methods are used for translation: compilation and interpretation .

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Compilation A compiler normally translates the whole source program into the object program . Interpretation Some computer languages use an interpreter to translate the source program into the object program. Interpretation refers to the process of translating each line of the source program into the corresponding line of the object program and executing the line.

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Translation process Compilation and interpretation differ in that the first translates the whole source code before executing it, while the second translates and executes the source code a line at a time. Both methods, however, follow the same translation process.

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Thank You By: Pinakesh Negi Class VI

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