Working of Cameras

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Cameras : 

Cameras

Question: : 

Question: If you’re building a camera and want to make a larger image (a telephoto lens) you should: increase the diameter of the lens decrease the diameter of the lens increase the curvature of the lens decrease the curvature of the lens

Observations About Cameras : 

Observations About Cameras They record the light from a scene on a film or sensor Good cameras have to focus, cheap ones don’t They sometimes have zoom lenses Some cameras have bigger lenses than others Cameras have ratings like focal length and f-number

Light from an Object : 

Light from an Object An illuminated object reflects or scatters light You see object via this reflected or scattered light The object’s light forms diffuse illumination You can’t tell what object looks like from this diffuse illumination

Converging Lenses : 

Converging Lenses A converging lens uses refraction to bend light rays Light rays converge after passing a converging lens Rays from a common point on an object converge to a common point on far side of the converging lens

Real Images : 

Real Images An image forms in space on far side of the lens The image is a pattern of light in space that exactly resembles the object, except for size and orientation The image is “real” – you can put your hand in it

Lenses and Film : 

Lenses and Film Film records the pattern of light it’s exposed to If you put film in a real image, it will record a pattern of light resembling the object For a good photograph, the real image should be sharply focused on the film and have the right size

Focusing : 

Focusing Light reaching the lens from an object is diverging The nearer the object, the more its light diverges Converging lens has trouble with diverging light Real image of nearby object forms farther from lens Real image of distant object forms closer to lens

Focal Length : 

Focal Length Focal length measures the lens’ converging ability Long focal length: weak convergence, long image distance Short focal length: strong convergence, short image distance The larger the object distance, the bigger the image Long focal length: big images Short focal length: small images

Lens Diameter : 

Lens Diameter Larger lens converges more light brighter image focus becomes more critical less depth of focus Smaller lens dimmer image focus becomes less critical more depth of focus

Question: : 

Question: If you’re building a camera and want to make a larger image (a telephoto lens) you should: increase the diameter of the lens decrease the diameter of the lens increase the curvature of the lens decrease the curvature of the lens

Wide Angle vs Telephoto : 

Wide Angle vs Telephoto Wide angle lens Highly curved to converge rays quickly and focus close Bright, small image forms near lens Small diameter lenses are usually adequate Telephoto lens Weakly curved to converge rays slowly and focus far Dim, large image forms far from lens Large diameter lenses are usually necessary

Aperture or f-number : 

Aperture or f-number Aperture characterizes the diameter of the lens F-number is lens focal length divided by lens diameter Large f-number Dim image Large depth of field/focus (focus is forgiving) Small f-number Bright image Small depth of field/focus (focus is critical)

Lens Flaws : 

Lens Flaws Dispersion ? different colors focus differently Use low-dispersion glass (fluoride glasses) Use multi-piece lenses or “achromats” Reflections ? fog in photographic images Use antireflection coatings Spherical aberration ? imperfect focus Poor focusing off axis ? coma distortions Spherical focus projected on flat film ? Astigmatism Use aspheric lenses

Black and White Film : 

Black and White Film Light exposure creates a latent image Silver bromide grains absorb photons (a silver salt) Photon energy separates salt into silver and bromine If a 4 atom silver cluster forms ? grain will develop Gold sensitization reduces threshold to 2 silver atoms Development converts exposed salt grains to silver Silver particle is misshapen and appears black Film forms a negative image of exposing object

Color Film : 

Color Film Sensitizers and filters produce three latent images Sensitizers and filters are built into the film Latent images are sandwiched together in the film Layers record red, green, and blue light respectively During development, colored dyes are produced Spent developer causes dye molecules to form Red layer: cyan, blue layer: yellow, green layer: magenta Dyes form a negative image of exposing object

Digital Cameras : 

Digital Cameras Instead of film, use CCD imaging chip Chip is divided into tiny squares or pixels Photon causes charge transfer in pixel After exposure, pixels retain charge image Charge is shifted out of pixels using MOSFETs Camera obtains and saves image

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