Object-oriented Design

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Object-oriented Design : 

Object-oriented Design

Objectives : 

Objectives To explain how a software design may be represented as a set of interacting objects that manage their own state and operations To describe the activities in the object-oriented design process To introduce various models that describe an object-oriented design To show how the UML may be used to represent these models

Topics covered : 

Topics covered Objects and object classes An object-oriented design process Design evolution

Characteristics of OOD : 

Characteristics of OOD Objects are abstractions of real-world or system entities and manage themselves Objects are independent and encapsulate state and representation information. System functionality is expressed in terms of object services Shared data areas are eliminated. Objects communicate by message passing Objects may be distributed and may execute sequentially or in parallel

Interacting objects : 

Interacting objects

Advantages of OOD : 

Advantages of OOD Easier maintenance. Objects may be understood as stand-alone entities Objects are appropriate reusable components For some systems, there may be an obvious mapping from real world entities to system objects

Object-oriented development : 

Object-oriented development Object-oriented analysis, design and programming are related but distinct OOA is concerned with developing an object model of the application domain OOD is concerned with developing an object-oriented system model to implement requirements OOP is concerned with realising an OOD using an OO programming language such as Java or C++

Objects and object classes : 

Objects and object classes Objects are entities in a software system which represent instances of real-world and system entities Object classes are templates for objects. They may be used to create objects Object classes may inherit attributes and services from other object classes

Objects : 

Objects An object is an entity which has a state and a defined set of operations which operate on that state. The state is represented as a set of object attributes. The operations associated with the object provide services to other objects (clients) which request these services when some computation is required. Objects are created according to some object class definition. An object class definition serves as a template for objects. It includes declarations of all the attributes and services which should be associated with an object of that class.

The Unified Modeling Language : 

The Unified Modeling Language Several different notations for describing object-oriented designs were proposed in the 1980s and 1990s The Unified Modeling Language is an integration of these notations It describes notations for a number of different models that may be produced during OO analysis and design It is now a de facto standard for OO modelling

Employee object class (UML) : 

Employee object class (UML)

Object communication : 

Object communication Conceptually, objects communicate by message passing. Messages The name of the service requested by the calling object. Copies of the information required to execute the service and the name of a holder for the result of the service. In practice, messages are often implemented by procedure calls Name = procedure name. Information = parameter list.

Message examples : 

Message examples // Call a method associated with a buffer // object that returns the next value // in the buffer v = circularBuffer.Get () ; // Call the method associated with a// thermostat object that sets the // temperature to be maintained thermostat.setTemp (20) ;

Generalisation and inheritance : 

Generalisation and inheritance Objects are members of classes which define attribute types and operations Classes may be arranged in a class hierarchy where one class (a super-class) is a generalisation of one or more other classes (sub-classes) A sub-class inherits the attributes and operations from its super class and may add new methods or attributes of its own Generalisation in the UML is implemented as inheritance in OO programming languages

Advantages of inheritance : 

Advantages of inheritance It is an abstraction mechanism which may be used to classify entities It is a reuse mechanism at both the design and the programming level The inheritance graph is a source of organisational knowledge about domains and systems

Problems with inheritance : 

Problems with inheritance Object classes are not self-contained. they cannot be understood without reference to their super-classes Designers have a tendency to reuse the inheritance graph created during analysis. Can lead to significant inefficiency The inheritance graphs of analysis, design and implementation have different functions and should be separately maintained

Inheritance and OOD : 

Inheritance and OOD There are differing views as to whether inheritance is fundamental to OOD. View 1. Identifying the inheritance hierarchy or network is a fundamental part of object-oriented design. Obviously this can only be implemented using an OOPL. View 2. Inheritance is a useful implementation concept which allows reuse of attribute and operation definitions. Identifying an inheritance hierarchy at the design stage places unnecessary restrictions on the implementation Inheritance introduces complexity and this is undesirable, especially in critical systems

UML associations : 

UML associations Objects and object classes participate in relationships with other objects and object classes In the UML, a generalised relationship is indicated by an association Associations may be annotated with information that describes the association Associations are general but may indicate that an attribute of an object is an associated object or that a method relies on an associated object

Concurrent objects : 

Concurrent objects The nature of objects as self-contained entities make them suitable for concurrent implementation The message-passing model of object communication can be implemented directly if objects are running on separate processors in a distributed system

Servers and active objects : 

Servers and active objects Servers. The object is implemented as a parallel process (server) with entry points corresponding to object operations. If no calls are made to it, the object suspends itself and waits for further requests for service Active objects Objects are implemented as parallel processes and the internal object state may be changed by the object itself and not simply by external calls

Active transponder object : 

Active transponder object Active objects may have their attributes modified by operations but may also update them autonomously using internal operations Transponder object broadcasts an aircraft’s position. The position may be updated using a satellite positioning system. The object periodically update the position by triangulation from satellites

Java threads : 

Java threads Threads in Java are a simple construct for implementing concurrent objects Threads must include a method called run() and this is started up by the Java run-time system Active objects typically include an infinite loop so that they are always carrying out the computation

An object-oriented design process : 

An object-oriented design process Define the context and modes of use of the system Design the system architecture Identify the principal system objects Develop design models Specify object interfaces

Weather system description : 

Weather system description A weather data collection system is required to generate weather maps on a regular basis using data collected from remote, unattended weather stations and other data sources such as weather observers, balloons and satellites. Weather stations transmit their data to the area computer in response to a request from that machine. The area computer validates the collected data and integrates it with the data from different sources. The integrated data is archived and, using data from this archive and a digitised map database a set of local weather maps is created. Maps may be printed for distribution on a special-purpose map printer or may be displayed in a number of different formats.

Weather station description : 

Weather station description A weather station is a package of software controlled instruments which collects data, performs some data processing and transmits this data for further processing. The instruments include air and ground thermometers, an anemometer, a wind vane, a barometer and a rain gauge. Data is collected every five minutes. When a command is issued to transmit the weather data, the weather station processes and summarises the collected data. The summarised data is transmitted to the mapping computer when a request is received.

System context and models of use : 

System context and models of use Develop an understanding of the relationships between the software being designed and its external environment System context A static model that describes other systems in the environment. Use a subsystem model to show other systems. Following slide shows the systems around the weather station system. Model of system use A dynamic model that describes how the system interacts with its environment. Use use-cases to show interactions

Architectural design : 

Architectural design Once interactions between the system and its environment have been understood, you use this information for designing the system architecture Layered architecture is appropriate for the weather station Interface layer for handling communications Data collection layer for managing instruments Instruments layer for collecting data There should be no more than 7 entities in an architectural model

Object identification : 

Object identification Identifying objects (or object classes) is the most difficult part of object oriented design There is no 'magic formula' for object identification. It relies on the skill, experience and domain knowledge of system designers Object identification is an iterative process. You are unlikely to get it right first time

Approaches to identification : 

Approaches to identification Use a grammatical approach based on a natural language description of the system (used in Hood method) Base the identification on tangible things in the application domain Use a behavioural approach and identify objects based on what participates in what behaviour Use a scenario-based analysis. The objects, attributes and methods in each scenario are identified

Weather station object classes : 

Weather station object classes Ground thermometer, Anemometer, Barometer Application domain objects that are ‘hardware’ objects related to the instruments in the system Weather station The basic interface of the weather station to its environment. It therefore reflects the interactions identified in the use-case model Weather data Encapsulates the summarised data from the instruments

Further objects and object refinement : 

Further objects and object refinement Use domain knowledge to identify more objects and operations Weather stations should have a unique identifier Weather stations are remotely situated so instrument failures have to be reported automatically. Therefore attributes and operations for self-checking are required Active or passive objects In this case, objects are passive and collect data on request rather than autonomously. This introduces flexibility at the expense of controller processing time

Design models : 

Design models Design models show the objects and object classes and relationships between these entities Static models describe the static structure of the system in terms of object classes and relationships Dynamic models describe the dynamic interactions between objects.

Examples of design models : 

Examples of design models Sub-system models that show logical groupings of objects into coherent subsystems Sequence models that show the sequence of object interactions State machine models that show how individual objects change their state in response to events Other models include use-case models, aggregation models, generalisation models,etc.

Subsystem models : 

Subsystem models Shows how the design is organised into logically related groups of objects In the UML, these are shown using packages - an encapsulation construct. This is a logical model. The actual organisation of objects in the system may be different.

Sequence models : 

Sequence models Sequence models show the sequence of object interactions that take place Objects are arranged horizontally across the top Time is represented vertically so models are read top to bottom Interactions are represented by labelled arrows, Different styles of arrow represent different types of interaction A thin rectangle in an object lifeline represents the time when the object is the controlling object in the system

Statecharts : 

Statecharts Show how objects respond to different service requests and the state transitions triggered by these requests If object state is Shutdown then it responds to a Startup() message In the waiting state the object is waiting for further messages If reportWeather () then system moves to summarising state If calibrate () the system moves to a calibrating state A collecting state is entered when a clock signal is received

Object interface specification : 

Object interface specification Object interfaces have to be specified so that the objects and other components can be designed in parallel Designers should avoid designing the interface representation but should hide this in the object itself Objects may have several interfaces which are viewpoints on the methods provided The UML uses class diagrams for interface specification but Java may also be used

Design evolution : 

Design evolution Hiding information inside objects means that changes made to an object do not affect other objects in an unpredictable way Assume pollution monitoring facilities are to be added to weather stations. These sample the air and compute the amount of different pollutants in the atmosphere Pollution readings are transmitted with weather data

Changes required : 

Changes required Add an object class called ‘Air quality’ as part of WeatherStation Add an operation reportAirQuality to WeatherStation. Modify the control software to collect pollution readings Add objects representing pollution monitoring instruments

Key points : 

OOD is an approach to design so that design components have their own private state and operations Objects should have constructor and inspection operations. They provide services to other objects Objects may be implemented sequentially or concurrently The Unified Modeling Language provides different notations for defining different object models Key points

Key points : 

Key points A range of different models may be produced during an object-oriented design process. These include static and dynamic system models Object interfaces should be defined precisely using e.g. a programming language like Java Object-oriented design simplifies system evolution

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