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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript MPEG-1 Compression : MPEG-1 Compression Announcements : Announcements Ubiquitous Use of Digital Video : Ubiquitous Use of Digital Video Application domains video conferencing, home video production, multimedia e-mail, electronic art, and more Main obstacle is the raw size of digital video and the lack of a standard compression format e.g., 640 x 480 video, 24 bits per pixel, 30 fps requires about 27.6 Mb/sec; or about 100 GB/hr Many compression schemes, but a standard is needed to facilitate adoption, interoperability Requirements : Requirements Allow balance of compression and quality Apply to almost any digital video content Tractable computational complexity Robustness to errors Synchronization Support user interactions within a stream editing, search, access MPEG History : MPEG History Began in 1988 grew from 15 to 150 participants 17 companies; ATT, NEC, Intel, IBM, Sony, … MPEG and JPEG part of same ISO group MPEG was thought of as JPEG, but with removal of temporal redundancy Wanted good quality at 1.5Mbs (CD) driving focus of the standard MPEG-1 Components : MPEG-1 Components Video: describes compression of frames Audio: describes compression of audio frames System: describes synchronization and multiplexing Supports several aspect ratios 1:1 (CRT) ; 4:3 (NTSC); 16:9 (HDTV) And refresh frequencies 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 50, 59.94, 60 Hz Compression Techniques : Compression Techniques Video is a temporal series of still images Spatial compression transform blocks to frequency domain and remove high-frequency detail Temporal compression predict motion between frames and encode pointers to previous and future frames provides majority of the compression Temporal Compression Insight : Temporal Compression Insight (a) (b) (c) (d) Three Types of Frames : Three Types of Frames Intra frames (same as JPEG) typically about 12 frames between I frames Predictive frames encode from previous I or P reference frame Bi-directional frames encode from previous and future I or P frames I P I P P B B B B B B B B Frame Order : Frame Order Prediction causes dependency issues B-frames depend on future frames Decode frames out of order I1 P1 I2 P2 P3 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B2 I1 P1 I2 P2 P3 B1 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Selecting I, P, or B Frames : Selecting I, P, or B Frames Heuristics change of scenes should generate I frame limit B and P frames between I frames B frames are computationally intense Compression Steps : Compression Steps Prepare the image for compression transform color space (YUV) down-sample color components partition into macro (16x16) and blocks (8x8) Further steps take one of two paths: 2D DCT encoding, or motion compensation Transform Color Space : Transform Color Space MPEG requires YUV same space as YIQ, but rotated by 33 deg. U-V plane at Y=0.5 Down-sample : Down-sample MPEG optimized for 352 x 240 at 30 fps derived from CCIR-601 digital television standard used in professional equipment higher resolutions supported Requires 4:2:2 down-sampling 176 x 120 pixels in chrominance components Blocks and Macro-blocks : Blocks and Macro-blocks Block Y,U, and V cut into 8x8 pixel regions Macro-block In Y component, a macro-block refers to a 16x16 pixel region, or four 8x8 blocks In U and V components, a macro-block refers to two 8x8 regions, or two blocks Organized in row order; top to bottom DCT Encoding : DCT Encoding Applied to each block in an I frame each macro-block in a P or B frame that has no match to a reference reference Identical to JPEG encoding perform a DCT transform quantize resulting coefficients perform a zig-zag ordering apply entropy encoding Motion Compensation : Motion Compensation Each object moves from frame to frame, while maintaining the same color value Provides most of MPEG’s compression Asymmetric process Requires search in both time and space Evaluating if blocks match is difficult Motion Compensation : Motion Compensation Point (x,y) in frame n with intensity In(x,y) corresponds to point (x’,y’) in frame n-1 In(x,y) = In-1(x’,y’) Displacement (motion vector) d = (dx,dy) = (x,y) – (x’,y’) Extend idea to macro-blocks Search Restrictions : Search Restrictions Space P and B frames have no spatial restriction Time P restricted to previous I or P frame B restricted to previous/subsequent I or P Employ different algorithms balance performance with quality Exhaustive Search : Exhaustive Search An obvious, brute force solution Computationally expensive linear with respect to frame resolution Logarithmic Search : Logarithmic Search Search a sample of the search window Restrict search to more promising areas could result in false negatives (didn’t find a matching block, even though it existed) Predictive Search : Predictive Search Use previous macroblock’s motion vector as a starting point for search (space) Or, use motion vector from same block in previous frame as starting point (time) Error Metrics : Error Metrics SSD metric SAD metric Minimum error represents best match must be below a specified threshold error and perceptual similarity not always correlated Macroblock (MB) Found : Macroblock (MB) Found Compute motion vector between MBs encode as (x,y) offset from top left of current MB positive values indicate right and down Compute error difference between the two MBs results in a matrix of difference values (mostly 0) Apply DCT to difference matrix Add the motion vector and transformed error difference to the resulting bit stream Macroblock Not Found : Macroblock Not Found Apply standard DCT encoding to the blocks within the macroblock If no motion vector is present, then motion vector is understood to be (0,0) Adaptive Quantization : Adaptive Quantization After DCT transform, quantize coefficients Controlled by two parameters: quantization table and quantization factor Use quantization factor to adapt bitrate adjust factor to scale bitrate in real-time; larger value means lower bitrate Utilize to give constant bit rate encoding Quantization Tables : Quantization Tables Two tables; intra and non-intra blocks Non-intra table default is “16” in all coefficient positions little relation between frequency and quality Intra Quantization Table Slide 28: From Ramin Zabih’s lecture notes for CS 631 GOP GOP ... Seq Seq Seq … Seq SeqSC Video Param Bitstream Param QT, misc Pict Pict ... GOPSC GOP Param Time Code MB MB ... SSC QScale Vert Pos Slice Slice ... PSC Type Buffer Param Encode Param CBP b5 ... Addr Type Motion Vector QScale b0 GOP Layer Sequence Layer Picture Layer Slice Layer Macro-block Layer Block Layer Synchronization : Synchronization Interleave audio and video packets; insert time stamp into each “frame” of data Terminology SCR: system clock reference DTS: decoding time stamp PTS: presentation time stamp SCR defined by a 90K Hz crystal Synchronization : Synchronization During encoding: insert SCR values into system stream stamp each “frame” with PTS and DTS use encode time to approx. decode time During decoding: initialize local decoder clock with start value compare PTS to the value of local clock periodically synchronize local clock to SCR You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.