Photography Technical Terms

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Technical Terms of Photography ...:

1 Technical Terms of Photography ...

PowerPoint Presentation:

Like any other profession or a technical job, photography as an art and as a science has some distinct technical words which gives an easier communication of ideas and perceptions. As a form of visual expression, photography is unique and it cannot be compared with any other branch of visual expression. 2

Aperture:

Aperture Aperture is the size of the opening in the lens that lets the light pass through the camera. The importance of manually controlling the aperture is because it gives you control of the amount of light that enters the camera and exposes the digital sensor. The aperture settings are known as f/stops. Lower f/stops indicate a larger aperture opening. Higher f/stops indicate a smaller aperture opening. 3

Aperture:

Aperture The aperture settings are known as f/stops. Lower f/stops indicate a larger aperture opening. Higher f/stops indicate a smaller aperture opening. Here is a diagram showing you the difference in a lower f/stop and a higher f/stop: 4

Aperture:

Aperture 5

Shutter Speed:

Shutter Speed The shutter speed specifically refers to how long this light is permitted to enter the camera. "Shutter speed" and "exposure time" refer to the same concept, where a faster shutter speed means a shorter exposure time. 6

Shutter Speed:

Shutter Speed The camera's shutter gives controls to the amount of light entering the camera. Think of it like the shutters on the house window. When the shutters are closed, they block out light. When the shutters are fully open, all the light enters the room. The shutter button on DSLRs opens the shutter for a predetermined amount of time, specified by the shutter speed. 7

Shutter Speed:

Shutter Speed Shutter speeds are measured in fractions of a second. example: 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, etc. Some cameras may display just the denominator. So, if the camera just displays 500 it really means 1/500 of a second. The higher the fraction denominator, the faster the shutter speed. (1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 sec.) are appropriate for stopping fast moving subjects. 8

Shutter Speed:

Shutter Speed Shutter speeds are measured in fractions of a second. example: 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000, etc. Some cameras may display just the denominator. So, if the camera just displays 500 it really means 1/500 of a second. The higher the fraction denominator, the faster the shutter speed. (1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 sec.) are appropriate for stopping fast moving subjects. 9

High Shutter Speed – Short Exposure:

High Shutter Speed – Short Exposure 10

Low Shutter Speed – Long Exposure:

Low Shutter Speed – Long Exposure 11

ISO - measures the sensitivity of a camera's light sensor.:

ISO - measures the sensitivity of a camera's light sensor. When filming wildlife photography in the early morning or in the late afternoon, you are shooting in low light situations. When you're shooting in low light situations or when you need a faster shutter speed, a boost in ISO is the way to go. Higher ISO (ISO 400 or 800) = The light sensor is working harder and needs less light to record an image. This is used to get a faster shutter speed (to avoid camera shake) and to freeze a moving target. Higher ISO can cause "noise," where the image looks grainy. "Noise" may also cause the overall colors to look dull. 12

ISO:

ISO Comparison of both images. This is a crop of a small section of each image displayed at 100%. The left portion was shot at 100 ISO, the right portion at 800 ISO. 13

ISO:

ISO A good rule-of-thumb to follow with a Digital Camera is to try not to go over ISO 400. For DSLR cameras you can usually go higher, with some models showing good results even up to 1600. This all depends on your camera. I would suggest to go out in the early morning or late at night and test your camera's ISO by taking multiple pictures at different ISO and then comparing them. 14

Depth of Field:

Depth of Field Depth of field is the range of distance within the subject that is acceptably sharp. The depth of field will vary from camera type, aperture settings, and focusing distance. The magnitude of the sharp area is affected by several factors: distance between the camera and the subject, focal length and aperture. 15

Depth of Field:

Depth of Field 16

Controlling Depth of Field:

Controlling Depth of Field Depth of field is mainly controlled by the aperture settings of your camera. Larger apertures (smaller F-stop number) and closer focal distances produce a shallower depth of field while a smaller aperture produces a wider depth of field. Depth of Field (DOF) is that amount of your shot that will be in focus. 17

Controlling Depth of Field:

Controlling Depth of Field Large depth of field means that most of your image will be in focus whether it’s close to your camera or far away (like the picture to the left where both the foreground and background are largely in focus – taken with an aperture of f/22). Small (or shallow) depth of field means that only part of the image will be in focus and the rest will be fuzzy. 18

Depth of Field:

Small f number Larger aperture Small depth of field Large f number Small aperture Large depth of field Depth of Field 19 Many scenes that you shoot will feature no depth at all, such as a flat subject or a scene when all of the important subjects are in the distance. A good middle f/stop number is recommended for these types of scenes.

Depth of Field:

Depth of Field The closer the subject to the camera, the more shallow the depth of field. The longer the focal length, the more shallow the depth of field. The larger the aperture (smaller the F-number), the more shallow the depth of field. 20

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