Distributed File Systems

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Distributed system: 

Distributed system Distributed File System Nguyen Huu Tuong Vinh Huynh Thi Thu Thuy Dang Trang Tri

Overviews: 

Overviews File system: support convenient programming interface to disk storage, access control and file looking mechanism. Developing of intranet, internet  sharing data between many PC on net  Distributed file system.( many OS and many file system types. )

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Sharing Persis- tence Distributed cache/replicas Consistency maintenance Example Main memory RAM File system UNIX file system Distributed file system Sun NFS Web Web server Distributed shared memory Ivy (DSM, Ch. 18) Remote objects (RMI/ORB) CORBA Persistent object store 1 CORBA Persistent Object Service Peer-to-peer storage system OceanStore (Ch. 10) 1 1 1 2 Types of consistency: 1: strict one-copy. 3: slightly weaker guarantees. 2: considerably weaker guarantees. Storage systems and their properties

File system modules: 

File system modules

File attribute record structure: 

File attribute record structure File length Creation timestamp Read timestamp Write timestamp Attribute timestamp Reference count Owner File type Access control list

File system: 

File system Responsibilities: organization, storage, retrieval, naming, sharing, protection. Functions: friendly programming interface, freeing programmers from concern with the details of storage allocation and layout.

UNIX file system operations: 

UNIX file system operations filedes = open(name, mode) filedes = creat(name, mode) Opens an existing file with the given name . Creates a new file with the given name . Both operations deliver a file descriptor referencing the open file. The mode is read , write or both. status = close(filedes) Closes the open file filedes . count = read(filedes, buffer, n) count = write(filedes, buffer, n) Transfers n bytes from the file referenced by filedes to buffer . Transfers n bytes to the file referenced by filedes from buffer. Both operations deliver the number of bytes actually transferred and advance the read-write pointer. pos = lseek(filedes, offset, whence) Moves the read-write pointer to offset (relative or absolute, depending on whence ). status = unlink(name) Removes the file name from the directory structure. If the file has no other names, it is deleted. status = link(name1, name2) Adds a new name ( name2 ) for a file ( name1 ). status = stat(name, buffer) Gets the file attributes for file name into buffer .

Distributed File System: 

Distributed File System Requirements: Transparency: access, location, mobility, performance. Concurrent File Updates File replication Hardware and OS heterogeneity Fault tolerance Consistency Security Efficiency

Case studies: 

Case studies File service architecture Sun NFS Andrew file system

File service architecture: 

File service architecture Flat file service Directory service Client module Access control Hierarchic file system File group

File service architecture: 

File service architecture Client computer Server computer Application program Application program Client module Flat file service Directory service

Flat file service operations: 

Flat file service operations Read(FileId, i, n) -> Data — throws BadPosition If 1 ≤ i ≤ Length(File) : Reads a sequence of up to n items from a file starting at item i and returns it in Data . Write(FileId, i, Data) — throws BadPosition If 1 ≤ i ≤ Length(File)+1 : Writes a sequence of Data to a file, starting at item i , extending the file if necessary. Create() -> FileId Creates a new file of length 0 and delivers a UFID for it. Delete(FileId) Removes the file from the file store. GetAttributes(FileId) -> Attr Returns the file attributes for the file. SetAttributes(FileId, Attr) Sets the file attributes (only those attributes that are not shaded in Figure 8.3).

Directory service operations: 

Directory service operations Lookup(Dir, Name) -> FileId — throws NotFound Locates the text name in the directory and returns the relevant UFID. If Name is not in the directory, throws an exception. AddName(Dir, Name, FileId) — throws NameDuplicate If Name is not in the directory, adds ( Name , File ) to the directory and updates the file’s attribute record. If Name is already in the directory: throws an exception. UnName(Dir, Name) — throws NotFound If Name is in the directory: the entry containing Name is removed from the directory. If Name is not in the directory: throws an exception. GetNames(Dir, Pattern) -> NameSeq Returns all the text names in the directory that match the regular expression Pattern .

Sun NFS: 

Sun NFS Virtual file system Client integration Access control and authentication Mount service Path name translation Automounter Server caching Client caching Other optimizations Securing NFS with Kerberos Performance

NFS architecture: 

NFS architecture UNIX kernel protocol Client computer Server computer system calls Local Remote UNIX file system NFS client NFS server UNIX file system Application program Application program NFS UNIX UNIX kernel Virtual file system Virtual file system Other file system

NFS server operations (simplified) – 1: 

NFS server operations (simplified) – 1 lookup(dirfh, name) -> fh, attr Returns file handle and attributes for the file name in the directory dirfh . create(dirfh, name, attr) -> newfh, attr Creates a new file name in directory dirfh with attributes attr and returns the new file handle and attributes. remove(dirfh, name) status Removes file name from directory dirfh . getattr(fh) -> attr Returns file attributes of file fh . (Similar to the UNIX stat system call.) setattr(fh, attr) -> attr Sets the attributes (mode, user id, group id, size, access time and modify time of a file). Setting the size to 0 truncates the file. read(fh, offset, count) -> attr, data Returns up to count bytes of data from a file starting at offset . Also returns the latest attributes of the file. write(fh, offset, count, data) -> attr Writes count bytes of data to a file starting at offset . Returns the attributes of the file after the write has taken place. rename(dirfh, name, todirfh, toname) -> status Changes the name of file name in directory dirfh to toname in directory to todirfh . link(newdirfh, newname, dirfh, name) -> status Creates an entry newname in the directory newdirfh which refers to file name in the directory dirfh . Continues on next slide ...

NFS server operations (simplified) – 2: 

NFS server operations (simplified) – 2 symlink(newdirfh, newname, string) -> status Creates an entry newname in the directory newdirfh of type symbolic link with the value string . The server does not interpret the string but makes a symbolic link file to hold it. readlink(fh) -> string Returns the string that is associated with the symbolic link file identified by fh . mkdir(dirfh, name, attr) -> newfh, attr Creates a new directory name with attributes attr and returns the new file handle and attributes. rmdir(dirfh, name) -> status Removes the empty directory name from the parent directory dirfh . Fails if the directory is not empty. readdir(dirfh, cookie, count) -> entries Returns up to count bytes of directory entries from the directory dirfh . Each entry contains a file name, a file handle, and an opaque pointer to the next directory entry, called a cookie . The cookie is used in subsequent readdir calls to start reading from the following entry. If the value of cookie is 0, reads from the first entry in the directory. statfs(fh) -> fsstats Returns file system information (such as block size, number of free blocks and so on) for the file system containing a file fh .

Local and remote file systems accessible on an NFS client: 

Local and remote file systems accessible on an NFS client Note: The file system mounted at /usr/students in the client is actually the sub-tree located at /export/people in Server 1; the file system mounted at /usr/staff in the client is actually the sub-tree located at /nfs/users in Server 2.

Andrew file system: 

Andrew file system 2 unusual design characteristics: whole file serving and whole file caching Scenario Cache consistency: update semantics Others aspects: Unix kernel modification, location database, thread, read only replicas, bulk transfers, partial file caching, performance, wide-area support.

Distribution of processes in the Andrew File System: 

Distribution of processes in the Andrew File System

File name space seen by clients of AFS: 

File name space seen by clients of AFS

System call interception in AFS: 

System call interception in AFS

Implementation of file system calls in AFS: 

Implementation of file system calls in AFS

The main components of the Vice service interface: 

The main components of the Vice service interface Fetch(fid) -> attr, data Returns the attributes (status) and, optionally, the contents of file identified by the fid and records a callback promise on it. Store(fid, attr, data) Updates the attributes and (optionally) the contents of a specified file. Create() -> fid Creates a new file and records a callback promise on it. Remove(fid) Deletes the specified file. SetLock(fid, mode) Sets a lock on the specified file or directory. The mode of the lock may be shared or exclusive. Locks that are not removed expire after 30 minutes. ReleaseLock(fid) Unlocks the specified file or directory. RemoveCallback(fid) Informs server that a Venus process has flushed a file from its cache. BreakCallback(fid) This call is made by a Vice server to a Venus process. It cancels the callback promise on the relevant file.

Recent advances: 

Recent advances NFS enhancement AFS enhancement Improvements in storage organization New design approaches