Types of Plant Layout: Types of Plant Layout Presenters: Presenters Rahul Jadhav 201054 Ankit Kapoor 201066 Definition: D efinition Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machines, equipment, tools, furniture etc. in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw material to the delivery of the final product. Objectives: Objectives Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space. Reduce material handling costs Provide ease of supervision and control. Allow easy maintenance of machines and plant. Types Of Layouts: Types Of Layouts Product or line layout Process or functional layout Fixed position or location layout Combined or group layout Product or Line Layout: Product or Line Layout Product A Product B Product C Step 1 Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 2 Step 2 Step 3 Step 3 Step 3 Step 4 Step 4 Step 4 Advantages: Advantages Low cost of material handling, due to straight and short route and absence of backtracking Smooth and continuous operations Continuous flow of work Lesser inventory and work in progress Optimum use of floor space Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control Lower manufacturing cost per unit Disadvantages: Disadvantages Higher initial capital investment in special purpose machine (SPM). High overhead charges Breakdown of one machine will disturb the production process. Lesser flexibility of physical resources. PROCESS LAYOUT: PROCESS LAYOUT Advantages: Advantages Lower initial capital investment is required. There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is not blocked for a single product. The overhead costs are relatively low Breakdown of one machine does not disturb the production process. Supervision can be more effective and specialized. Greater flexibility of resources. Disadvantages: Disadvantages Material handling costs are high due to backtracking More skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space More frequent inspection is needed which results in costly supervision COMBINED LAYOUT: COMBINED LAYOUT A combination of process & product layout is known as combined layout. Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production, combined layout is followed FIXED POSITION OR LOCATION LAYOUT: FIXED POSITION OR LOCATION LAYOUT Raw Material Air Craft Assembly Finished Product (Aircraft) Machines & Equipment Labour Advantages: Advantages The investment on layout is very small. The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations. Disadvantages: Disadvantages As the production period being very long so the capital investment is very high. Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product . As several operations are often carried out simultaneously so there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups.