polymer coating maize , quality during storage

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177 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2020 95: 177-185 E-ISSN: 2278-4136 P-ISSN: 2349-8234 www.phytojournal.com JPP 2020 95: 177-185 Received: 26-07-2020 Accepted: 28-08-2020 Ankit Moharana Department of Seed Science and Technology College of Agriculture Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar Odisha India Saroj Kumar Mohanty Department of Seed Science and Technology College of Agriculture Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar Odisha India Ramakrushna Bastia Department of Seed Science and Technology College of Agriculture Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar Odisha India Corresponding Author: Ankit Moharana Department of Seed Science and Technology College of Agriculture Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology Bhubaneswar Odisha India Standardisation of polymer coating in maize for maintenance of seed quality during storage Ankit Moharana Saroj Kumar Mohanty and Ramakrushna Bastia DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/phyto.2020.v9.i5c.12207 Abstract An experiment was laid out in Completely Randomised Design with three replications and twelve treatments. The polymer coated maize seeds and one untreated lot were stored in cloth bags while another untreated lot was stored in polythene bag 700 gauge. All the treatments were stored under ambient conditions for six months from November 2016 to April 2017. Monthly observations on seed quality parameters were recorded. After 6 months of storage seeds treated with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg recorded lowest seed moisture content 10.62 with maximum germination 93.00 shoot length 19.31 cm root length 16.17 cm seedling dry weight 0.61 g seed vigor index-I 3299.64 seed vigor index-II 56.73 field emergence 92.00 total dehydrogenase activity 0.67 total soluble protein content 9.56 and lowest infection 1.00 of seed borne pathogen. From the present investigation it can be concluded that maize seeds coated with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg seed can be used to maintain significantly high germination and other seed quality parameters during storage in cloth bags in comparison with the untreated seed stored either in cloth bag or polythene bags. Keywords: Maize seed polymer coating quality during storage standardisation 1. Introduction Maize Zea mays L. is the third most important cereal crop having worldwide significance as human food animal feed and as good source of starch protein fat oil and sucrose in addition to some of the important vitamins and minerals. Maize grains are rich in vitamins A C and E carbohydrates and essential minerals and contain 9-10 protein. One of the major causes of low productivity in maize is the use of relatively poor quality seeds by the farmers. Most quality seeds available in the market are hybrids supplied by the private companies. Maize seeds suffer from rapid loss of germinability and vigor mainly under coastal agro-climatic conditions where high temperature and high humidity conditions prevail for several months during the year. Many private seed companies employ techniques of seed polymer coating in which a polymer along with other desired materials are coated over the seeds with negligible increase in the thickness or weight of the seeds. The polymer coat which are ideally be thin easy to apply hydrophobic with regards to water vapour but readily diffusing in soil upon contact with water to allow the seed to germinate and most importantly be non-toxic to the seed or seedlings during germination provides protection from the stress conditions. It should also be eco-friendly so as to maintain soil health in the rhizosphere. The polymer film may also act as physical barrier reducing the leaching of inhibitors from the seed coat and may restrict oxygen diffusion to the embryo which enriches the endogenous level of newly bioactive substances Vanangamudi et al. 2003 1 . Polymer coating can also make room for including all the required ingredients like inoculants protectants nutrients herbicides oxygen suppliers etc. Coating with polymers also provides resistance against mechanical damage in the seed drill thus improving the appearance and quality of polymer coated seeds. The application of polymers to seed serves as an extra exterior shell in order to give the desired seed characteristics viz. quick or delayed water uptake and enhanced germination that would be beneficial for better emergence and establishment in the given condition Taylor et al. 1998 2 . Seed coating technique developed rapidly during past 20 years and provides an economical and better approach to seed enhancement. Benefit of seed coating is that the seed enhancement material fungicide and insecticide is placed directly on the surface of the seed without changing the seed shape. It has been reported that by polymer coating the improvement in seed weight ranges from 1-10 only since it is of an extremely thin coating and allows multiple layers on the seed.

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178 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com The storability of polycoated seeds has to be investigated in order to determine the viability of seeds for long term. Polycoated seeds can be stored for long term if adequate storage conditions are provided Giang and Gowda 2007 Vijay Kumar et al. 2007 3 4 . Keeping in view the above discussion the present investigation was proposed to screen out and standardise the dosage and seed coating technique of suitable polymers in maize seed in order to improve its storability under ambient conditions in coastal region of Odisha. The storability of uncoated maize seeds in polythene bags with that of polymer coated seeds in cloth bags were compared and the pattern of biochemical changes occurring in polymer coated seeds during storage under ambient conditions were studied. Materials and Methods Source of seed Freshly harvested seeds of maize hybrid CAH-1511 were procured from the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics College of Agriculture OUAT Bhubaneswar. Methodology Prior to coating of the seeds assessment of their germinability and vigor was done. The seeds were coated with various polymers viz. Methyl Cellulose Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Ethyl Cellulose Little’s Polykote Red TM and Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose each at two doses 3 ml/kg seed and 4 ml/kg seed along with insecticide Imidachloprid. After coating the seeds were dried to original moisture content and stored under ambient conditions in cloth bags moisture pervious container. The storage experiment was set up in the Seed Physiology Laboratory of the Department of Seed Science and Technology College of Agriculture OUAT Bhubaneswar. Regular observations on various seed physiological quality parameters were recorded at monthly intervals. Experimental details Crop: Maize Variety: CAH -1511 Storage Time Period: November 2016- April 2017 Experimental design: Completely Randomised Design No. of replications: 3 Treatments T 1 : Uncoated seeds stored in cloth bag Control T 2 : Uncoated seeds stored in 700 gauge polythene bag T 3 : Polymer coating with Methyl Cellulose 3 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 4 : Polymer coating with Methyl Cellulose 4 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 5 : Polymer coating with Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone 3 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 6 : Polymer coating with Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone 4 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 7 : Polymer coating with Ethyl Cellulose 3 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 8 : Polymer coating with Ethyl Cellulose 4 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 9 : Polymer coating with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 10 : Polymer coating with Little’s Polykote Red TM 4 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 1 : Polymer coating with Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose 3 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag T 12 : Polymer coating with Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose 4 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag Seed coating with synthetic polymers Three kilogram seed for each treatment were weighed and kept separately in plastic jars. Desired quantity of the polymer material along with the insecticide Imidacloprid were slowly poured on to the seed and mixed by slow stirring of the jars to obtain uniform coating. The coated seeds were then spread in thin layers on a polythene sheet and allowed to dry in shade for one day followed by sun drying for three days to bring the moisture back to the original level. The coated and uncoated seeds were then stored in the respective containers. The coated seeds of various treatments were packed in cloth bags in three replications and stored under ambient conditions in the laboratory. Monthly observations on the moisture content seed physiological quality and biochemical parameters were recorded for a period of six months. Method of storage The coated seeds of various treatments were packed in cloth bags in three replications and stored under ambient conditions in the laboratory. One uncoated lot was stored in polythene bag 700 gauge in order to simulate the common practice of seed companies while another uncoated control was stored in cloth bag. Seed quality evaluations were made initially and subsequently at monthly intervals for six months. Observations recorded Monthly observations on the moisture content seed physiological quality and biochemical parameters were recorded for a period of six months. Seed moisture content The seed material was grinded in a seed grinder into a fine powder. About 5 g of finely ground seed material was taken separately from each treatment in a pre-weighed M 1 moisture box and the weight was recorded M 2 . The moisture boxes were then placed in a hot air oven maintained at 130±1°C for 4 hours. After that the moisture boxes were taken out and allowed to cool to room temperature in a desiccator. The final weight M 3 was recorded. The moisture content was calculated using the following formula and expressed as percentage on wet weight basis ISTA 1999 5 . Germination and Speed of germination Germination test was conducted in three replications of 100 seeds each by adopting between paper method as recommended by ISTA 1999 5 . Seeds were incubated at vertical position in a germinator. The temperature of 25±1 o C and RH of 95 percent were maintained during the germination test. First count was taken after four days and final count after seven days. Germination percentage was calculated as: Speed of germination For this test daily counts of germinated seeds were taken during the entire duration of standard germination test.

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179 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com Where n no. of seeds germinated radicle has emerged d days from sowing Root length Ten normal seedlings were selected randomly for every treatment from all the replications after taking the ultimate germination count test. The root length was measured from the tip of the primary root to base of hypocotyl with the assistance of a scale and mean root length was expressed in centimetre. Shoot length Those ten normal seedlings which were used for root length measurement were also used for the measurement of shoot length. The shoot length was measured form the tip of the first leaf to the bottom of the hypocotyl and mean shoot length was expressed in centimetre. Seedling dry weight The ten normal seedlings used for root and shoot length measurements were for measurement of seedling dry weight. After removing the remnant portion of the seed only the plumule and radicle were put in butter paper packet and kept in hot air oven at 70± 1 o C for 24 hours. The dry weight of the 10 seedlings was recorded and their mean value expressed in gram. Seedling Vigor index The seeding Vigor index was calculated by adopting the method suggested by Abdul-Baki and Anderson 1973 6 and expressed in number by using below formula. Seedling Vigor Index-I Germination x Mean seedling length cm Seedling Vigor Index-II Germination x Mean seedling dry weight g Electrical conductivity of seed leachate Three replications of 5 g seeds from each treatment were drawn and pre-washed well with distilled water to remove any adhering chemicals and then soaked in 25 ml distilled water for 12 hours at room temperature. After soaking the seed steep water was decanted to obtain the seed leachate. The electrical conductivity of the seed leachate was measured in a digital conductivity meter with a cell constant of one and expressed as dSm -1 Presley 1958 7 . Total Dehydrogenase Activity TDH The total dehydrogenase activity was determined by the method described by Perl et al. 1978 8 with slight modifications. Ten seeds were selected randomly and pre- conditioned by imbibing the seeds for 10 hours. After that the seeds were soaked in 0.5 percent Tetrazolium solution at 30+1 o C for a period of 8 hours. Then they were washed thoroughly with distilled water. The red colour Formazan was eluted from the stained embryos by soaking in 5ml of 2- methoxy ethanol for 10 hours. The extract was decanted and the colour intensity was measured at 480 nm using Spectro UV-VIS Double Beam PC Scanning Spectrophotometer UVD-2950. The total dehydrogenase activity was expressed in terms of absorbance at 480 nm. Field emergence One hundred maize seeds selected randomly from each treatment in three replications were used for the field emergence studies. The seeds were sown in well prepared soil at 4 to 5 cm deep and covered with soil. Field emergence count was taken on the 7th day after sowing and the emergence percentage was calculated taking into account the number of seedlings emerged three centimetre above the soil surface. Statistical analysis The observations recorded for each parameter were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance appropriate for completely randomized design. The treatment effects were compared using LSD test at 0.05 level of probability when the F-values were significant Steel and Torrie 1984 9 . Result and Discussion Seed ageing and deterioration of seed are irreversible inexorable process but the rate of seed deterioration could be slowed down either by storing the seeds under controlled condition or by imposing seed with polymer coating along with seed treatment chemicals Duan and Burris 1997 10 . The rapid deterioration of stored seed is a serious problem particularly in India where high temperature and relative humidity prevail and associate to accelerate is the phenomenon seed ageing. As the controlled seed storage condition involves huge cost the seed coating and treatment remain a good alternative approach to maintain the seed quality during storage. Polymer coating is a new concept in which the plasticizer polymer forms flexible film that adheres and protects fungicide and insecticide preventing wastage of the chemical the film is readily soluble as it is hydrophilic and do not impede germination. Seed Moisture Content In the present study lowest moisture content 10.01 was recorded during first month in the treatment T 9 : Polymer coating with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg seed stored in cloth bag and highest 11.28 was noticed in control T 1 and lowest in T 9 Polymer coating with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg seed i.e 10.62 at the end of six month of storage. The seeds coated with synthetic polymer will cover the pores in the seed coat and prevents the entry of both water and fungal mycelia and provide protection from physical damage which can occur during handling and storage West et al. 1985 11 . The results are in accordance with the findings of Meena et al. 1998 12 Shivayogi Ryavalad et al. 2009 13 and Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Seed germination Seed germination was declined progressively over a period of storage due to seed coating polymers. Among packaging materials seeds stored in polythene bag of 700 gauge thickness recorded highest germination 86.67 and to lowest 84.00 in cloth bag at the end of sixth month of storage as against the initial seed germination of 98.00 per cent. With respect to the treatments Little’s Polykote red 3 ml/kg T 9 recorded significantly highest germination 93.00 and lowest 84.00 was in control T 1 at the end of six month of storage. The decrease in germination percentage may be due to ageing effect caters to reduction of food reserves and reduction in synthetic activity of embryo apart from death of seed because of fungal invasion fluctuating temperature relative humidity and storage

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180 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com container in which seeds are stored. Increased accumulation of total peroxide malondialdehyde content and leakage of electrolytes due to ageing of seeds. Germination was higher in polythene bag which may attribute to low rate of respiration compared to cloth bag. These findings are in agreement with the results obtained by Shekhar Gouda et al. 1998 15 in sunflower Hunje et al. 1990 16 in cowpea and Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Shoot and root length Shoot length root length cm decreased gradually with advancement in storage period however at the end of six months of storage the packaging materials seeds stored in polythene bag recorded highest 18.12cm14.39cm compared to cloth bag 18.08cm14.37cm of shoot length and root length respectively. Among the treatments Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg of seeds recorded significantly the highest shoot length and root length 19.31cm and 16.17cm and lowest 18.08cm 14.37cm was in control T 1 respectively as against the initial data at the end of six months of storage. These findings are in agreement with results obtained Iqbal et al. 2002 17 and Vijaykumar et al. 2007 4 in cotton. Seedling dry weight Seedling dry weight declined with advancement of storage period and at the end of storage period of six months the highest seedling dry weight 0.56g was recorded in polythene bag compared to cloth bag 0.52g. The treatment Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg of seeds T 9 recorded the highest seedling dry weight 0.61g and lowest 0.52g was in control T 1 . Dry weight of seedling decreased with increase in storage period. This may be due to ageing which resulted in deterioration of seed decrease in the germination percentage and seedling dry weight. These results are in agreement with the findings of Mahendrapal and Grewal 1985 18 in pigeon pea Paul et al. 1996 19 in mungbean Shivayogi Ryavalad et al. 2009 13 and Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Seed vigor index Assessment of seedling vigor index is also more relevant as the germination alone may not reveal the real potential of seed lots. The seedling vigor index based on seedling length is well correlated with seedling vigor index based on mean seedling dry weight at the end of six month storage period the seed stored in polythene bag recorded the highest seedling vigor index-I 2817.6417 compared to cloth bag 2725.8 while the highest seedling vigor index-I 3299.64 in the treatment Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg of seeds T 9 and lowest 2725.8 was in Control T 1 as against the initial seedling vigor index-I. Similarly the seed stored in polythene bag recorded the highest seedling vigor index-II 48.53 compared to cloth bag 43.68 while the highest seedling vigor index-II 56.73 in the treatment Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg T 9 and lowest 43.68 was in Control T 1 at the end of six month of storage. The decline in seedling vigor indices may be attributed to decrease in germination per cent seedling length and dry matter accumulation in seedling. These findings are in agreement with the results obtained by Meena et al. 1998 12 Vijaykumar et al. 2007 4 Shivayogi Ryavalad et al. 2009 13 Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Electrical conductivity Electrical conductivity of seed leachate dSm -1 is one of the bio-chemical characters assessed for seed deterioration at the end of six months of storage period among the packaging materials seeds stored in polythene bag 700 gauge recorded the lowest electrical conductivity 175.777 dSm-1 compared to cloth bag 259.888 dSm -1 . Whereas the treatment Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg T 9 registered the lowest electrical conductivity 172 dSm -1 and the highest 259.888 dSm -1 was in control T 1 . Progressive increase in electrical conductivity of seed leachate dSm -1 was observed as advancement of storage period. Increase in electrical conductivity may be attributed to permeability of the seed membrane as seed ages many substances such as sugars free amino acids organic acids will leach out in the presence of water disruption of membrane integrity and increase in free fatty acid level and free radical productivity by lipid peroxidation leads to leakage of electrolytes due to ageing of seed. These results are in agreement with the findings obtained by Basra et al. 2003 20 Vijaykumar et al. 2007 4 Shivayogi Ryavalad et al. 2009 13 Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Field emergence Field emergence decreased progressively with advancement of storage period. At the end of six months storage the seeds stored in polythene bag recorded the highest field emergence 84.33 compared to cloth bag 84.00. The treatment Little’s Polykote Red TM 3ml/kg T 9 recorded the highest field emergence 92.00 and the lowest 84.00 was in control T 1 further field emergence was declined in all the treatments as compared to initial field emergence of 98.5 per cent. This decrease infield emergence may be due to age induced deteriorative changes in cell and cell organelles and germination capacity of seed under natural soil conditions. As field emergence and germination are positively correlated the decline in field emergence may be attributed to decrease in germination per cent seedling vigor seed ageing and seed deterioration and loss of seed viability over a period of storage. Coating of polymer and chemicals avoid rapid water uptake and imbibitions damage resulting in rapid emergence from the soil. The higher field emergence was recorded in chemical treated seeds which may be due to protection of seeds from microorganisms and in turns help in establishment of seedling in the field condition. These results are similar to the findings of Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Total dehydrogenase activity TDH The total dehydrogenase activity TDH was decreased with increase in storage period. This enzyme is essential for protein synthesis and energy production during germination. The TDH activity at the initial month of storage was 1.00 and at the end of six months of storage the seed stored polythene bag recorded the highest total dehydrogenase activity 0.59 compared to cloth bag 0.58 .Among the treatments Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg T 9 recorded the highest dehydrogenase activity 0.67 compared to the lowest in control T 1 0.58. This shows that viability of the seeds decreased with increase in storage period. These results are similar to the findings obtained by Saxena and Maheswari 1980 21 in soybean. Total soluble protein content Total soluble protein content of the seed decreased over storage period and the total soluble protein content at the initial month of storage was 11.15 and at the end of six months of storage the seed stored polythene bag recorded the highest total soluble protein content 9.29 compared to cloth bag 8.68. Among the treatments Little’s Polykote

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181 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com Red TM 3 ml/kg of seeds T 9 recorded the highest total soluble protein content 9.56 and the lowest 8.68 was in control T 1 . Decrease in total soluble protein may be attributed to seed deterioration and rise in free amino acid level due to ageing. These results are similar to the findings of Roberts 1979 22 in groundnut. Seed infection The seed infection was increased with increase in storage period in control and seed coating with polymers. At the end of six months of storage the seed stored polythene bag recorded the lowest seed borne pathogen 3.00 compared to cloth bag 3.67. Among the treatments Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg of seed T 9 recorded lowest percentage of infected seed i.e 1.00 after six months of storage while the maximum seed borne infection was 3.67 in control T 1 . Storage fungi have been reported to invade and destroy seeds of several species. Under favourable conditions they can invade any kind of seeds. This invasion leads to loss of viability development of musty odour and discolouration of seeds. The infection rate differed with synthetic polymer coating seed treatment with chemicals packaging materials and storage period. This might be due to fluctuations in the moisture pervious in cloth bag. The occurrence of storage fungi coupled with higher moisture content in control seed leads to loss of seed quality parameters during storage. This results are similar to the findings obtained by Mukewar 1994 23 Chhabra and Shersinghverma 1997 24 and Badiger 2011 14 in cotton. Table 1: Changes in moisture content of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Moisture content Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 10.29 10.39 10.59 10.82 11.01 11.28 10.73 T2 10.28 10.36 10.56 10.74 10.96 11.22 10.70 T3 10.11 10.21 10.32 10.45 10.61 10.80 10.42 T4 10.04 10.14 10.26 10.43 10.57 10.75 10.36 T5 10.21 10.30 10.42 10.57 10.71 10.97 10.53 T6 10.19 10.30 10.40 10.56 10.70 10.97 10.52 T7 10.05 10.17 10.29 10.43 10.57 10.88 10.40 T8 10.05 10.17 10.31 10.44 10.57 10.88 10.40 T9 10.01 10.05 10.13 10.27 10.42 10.62 10.25 T10 10.02 10.09 10.24 10.36 10.53 10.80 10.34 T11 10.15 10.25 10.38 10.51 10.66 10.94 10.48 T12 10.16 10.23 10.39 10.52 10.67 10.94 10.49 SEM± 0.014 0.014 0.016 0.017 0.019 0.021 CD0.05 0.043 0.042 0.048 0.050 0.058 0.062 CV 0.26 0.25 0.28 0.29 0.32 0.34 Table 2: Changes in germination of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Seed germination Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 91 9.53 91 9.53 87.67 9.36 86.33 9.29 85.33 9.24 84.00 9.17 87.56 T2 93.33 9.66 93 9.64 87.67 9.36 86.67 9.31 86.67 9.30 86.67 9.31 89.00 T3 93.00 9.64 90.33 9.50 89.00 9.43 88.67 9.42 86.00 9.27 85.67 9.26 88.78 T4 91.33 9.56 91.33 9.56 90.00 9.49 88.33 9.40 86.33 9.29 86.33 9.29 88.94 T5 92.00 9.59 90.67 9.52 89.33 9.45 88.67 9.42 88.00 9.38 85.67 9.26 89.06 T6 91.67 9.57 90.33 9.50 90.33 9.50 88.67 9.42 87.00 9.33 85.67 9.26 88.94 T7 92.00 9.59 91.33 9.56 89.00 9.43 88.33 9.4 87.67 9.36 86.67 9.31 89.17 T8 91.67 9.57 90.67 9.52 90.00 9.49 88.00 9.38 87.33 9.35 87.00 9.33 89.11 T9 97.00 9.85 96.33 9.81 95.33 9.76 94.33 9.71 94.00 9.70 93.00 9.64 95.00 T10 97.00 9.85 96.33 9.81 94.67 9.73 94.00 9.70 93.00 9.64 91.67 9.57 94.44 T11 90.67 9.52 90.33 9.50 89.00 9.43 88.00 9.38 86.67 9.31 86.00 9.27 88.50 T12 92.67 9.63 91.00 9.54 88.67 9.42 88.67 9.42 86.33 9.29 86.33 9.29 88.94 SEM± 0.333 0.471 0.673 0.552 0.535 0.593 CD0.05 0.972 1.375 1.965 1.613 1.563 1.731 CV 0.62 0.89 1.30 1.08 1.06 1.18 Figures in the parentheses are square root transformed values y√x Table 3: Changes in shoot length of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Shoot length Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 20.14 19.35 18.84 18.60 18.33 18.08 18.89 T2 21.03 19.40 18.86 18.65 18.41 18.12 18.94 T3 21.88 20.54 20.26 19.84 18.83 18.07 19.91 T4 21.76 20.58 20.25 20.05 18.96 18.23 19.97 T5 20.18 19.91 19.60 19.34 18.90 18.15 19.35 T6 20.79 20.28 20.03 19.69 19.09 18.35 19.71 T7 21.07 20.87 20.65 20.24 19.24 18.79 20.14 T8 21.24 20.93 20.91 20.52 19.75 19.01 20.40 T9 22.48 22.01 21.79 21.28 20.41 19.31 21.21

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182 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com T10 22.45 21.84 21.34 21.02 20.13 18.96 20.96 T11 20.59 20.13 19.81 19.36 19.07 18.08 19.51 T12 20.69 20.19 19.82 19.42 18.82 17.98 19.49 SEM± 0.135 0.149 0.136 0.136 0.108 0.113 CD0.05 0.396 0.437 0.399 0.399 0.315 0.331 CV 1.11 1.27 1.17 1.20 0.98 1.07 Table 4: Changes in Root length of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Root length Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 16.20 16.02 15.85 15.64 14.60 14.37 15.45 T2 17.07 16.09 15.86 15.66 14.63 14.39 15.62 T3 16.33 16.24 15.91 15.70 14.63 14.40 15.54 T4 16.61 16.22 16.07 15.75 15.05 14.38 15.68 T5 16.45 16.20 16.13 15.96 14.72 14.61 15.68 T6 16.50 16.25 16.12 16.03 14.74 14.63 15.71 T7 17.10 16.83 16.40 16.13 15.68 15.44 16.26 T8 16.67 16.46 16.33 15.75 15.02 14.52 15.79 T9 18.11 18.11 17.66 17.20 16.41 16.17 17.28 T10 17.98 17.73 17.57 17.17 16.39 16.16 17.17 T11 17.22 16.67 16.46 16.43 15.44 15.39 16.27 T12 16.88 16.66 16.52 16.09 15.39 15.05 16.10 SEM± 0.224 0.144 0.186 0.177 0.200 0.210 CD0.05 0.656 0.421 0.543 0.519 0.584 0.615 CV 2.31 1.51 1.97 1.91 2.27 2.44 Table 5: Changes in Seedling dry weight of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Seedling Dry weight Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.55 0.52 0.59 T2 0.69 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.62 T3 0.70 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.61 T4 0.71 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.63 T5 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.61 T6 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.57 0.54 0.61 T7 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.64 T8 0.71 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.60 0.57 0.64 T9 0.74 0.72 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.67 T10 0.73 0.71 0.66 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.66 T11 0.69 0.67 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.57 0.63 T12 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.55 0.61 SEM± 0.004 0.009 0.005 0.005 0.007 0.007 CD0.05 0.013 0.028 0.017 0.015 0.020 0.021 CV 1.11 2.51 1.60 1.50 2.11 2.26 Table 6: Changes in SVI-I of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Seed vigor index I Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 3306.94 3218.67 3041.2723 2955.9392 2809.9169 2725.8 3009.7564 T2 3555.873 3300.57 3043.9024 2973.6477 2863.5768 2817.6417 3092.5352 T3 3553.53 3322.3374 3219.13 3151.3318 2877.56 2781.7049 3150.9323 T4 3504.3321 3360.944 3268.8 3162.214 2936.0833 2815.2213 3174.5991 T5 3369.96 3274.0937 3191.7609 3130.051 2958.56 2806.5492 3121.8291 T6 3418.3743 3299.7549 3265.4295 3167.2924 2943.21 2825.3966 3153.2429 T7 3511.64 3443.141 3297.45 3212.5621 3061.4364 2966.7141 3248.8239 T8 3475.2097 3390.1513 3351.6 3191.76 3036.4641 2917.11 3227.0491 T9 3937.23 3864.7596 3760.7685 3629.8184 3461.08 3299.64 3658.8827 T10 3921.71 3811.7781 3683.6097 3589.86 3396.36 3219.4504 3603.7947 T11 3428.2327 3324.144 3228.03 3149.52 2990.9817 2878.42 3166.5547 T12 3481.6119 3353.35 3222.2678 3148.6717 2953.3493 2851.4799 3168.4551 SEM± 38.639 29.785 23.306 23.044 54.392 25.761 CD0.05 112.764 86.923 68.016 67.251 158.736 75.182 CV 1.89 1.51 1.23 1.25 3.11 1.54

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183 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com Table 7: Changes in SVI-II of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Seed Vigor index II Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 58.24 56.42 52.602 50.0714 46.9315 43.68 51.3241 T2 64.3977 63.24 55.2321 52.8687 50.2686 48.5352 55.7570 T3 65.1 56.9079 55.18 52.3153 48.16 46.2618 53.9875 T4 64.8443 59.3645 56.7 53.8813 50.0714 48.3448 55.5343 T5 61.64 58.9355 55.3846 54.0887 51.04 47.1185 54.7012 T6 60.5022 57.8112 56.0046 54.0887 49.59 46.2618 54.0430 T7 64.4 61.1911 56.96 54.7646 52.602 51.1353 56.8421 T8 65.0857 60.7489 57.6 53.68 52.398 49.59 56.5171 T9 71.78 69.3576 62.9178 60.3712 59.22 56.73 63.3961 T10 70.81 68.3943 62.4822 59.22 57.66 55.002 62.2614 T11 62.5623 60.5211 56.07 53.68 50.2686 49.02 55.3536 T12 64.869 59.15 54.9754 52.3153 48.3448 47.4815 54.5226 SEM± 0.506 0.853 0.413 0.468 0.625 0.612 CD0.05 1.478 2.490 1.207 1.367 1.825 1.786 CV 1.30 2.42 1.26 1.49 2.09 2.14 Table 8: Changes in Electrical conductivity of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Electrical conductivity Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 211.00 240.67 250.33 273.33 291.67 292.33 259.888 T2 130.33 145 165 185 202.33 227 175.777 T3 178.33 198.33 218.33 232 194.67 270.666 215.388 T4 198.33 218.33 234.66 246 270.00 289 242.777 T5 147 165.66 182.33 200.66 207.67 229.333 188.777 T6 140.66 159 173 191 213.67 234.666 185.333 T7 205.33 231 238.33 263 282.33 287 251.166 T8 134.66 149.33 165.66 185.66 205.67 211.666 175.444 T9 126.33 143.33 163.33 175.00 199.00 225.00 172 T10 142 154 175 181.33 209.67 223.333 180.888 T11 134.33 147.33 170 179.66 203.67 215 175 T12 133 145.66 173.33 177 203.67 224 176.111 SEM± 2.430 3.638 3.510 6.385 5.860 7.972 CD0.05 7.039 10.619 10.245 18.633 17.102 23.265 CV 2.69 3.60 3.16 5.33 4.54 5.66 Table 9: Changes in Field emergence of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Field emergence Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 91.00 9.54 90.67 9.52 88.66 9.42 87.67 9.36 85.67 9.26 84.00 9.17 87.94 T2 91.33 9.56 91 9.54 88.67 9.42 88.00 9.38 85.67 9.26 84.33 9.18 88.17 T3 93.67 9.68 93.00 9.64 92.67 9.63 90.67 9.52 91.00 9.54 89.67 9.47 91.78 T4 93.33 9.66 92.67 9.63 91.33 9.56 88.67 9.42 89.67 9.47 86.33 9.29 90.33 T5 92.00 9.59 91.67 9.57 91.67 9.57 90.33 9.50 89.33 9.45 86.00 9.27 90.17 T6 91.00 9.54 90.67 9.52 90.33 9.50 89.33 9.45 88.00 9.38 85.67 9.26 89.17 T7 93.67 9.68 92.67 9.63 91.67 9.57 91.00 9.54 88.33 9.40 86.33 9.29 90.61 T8 94.33 9.71 93.67 9.68 91.67 9.57 90.33 9.50 89.33 9.45 86.33 9.29 90.94 T9 98.00 9.90 97.67 9.88 96.33 9.81 94.67 9.73 94.33 9.71 92.00 9.59 95.50 T10 98.33 9.92 96.67 9.83 95.00 9.75 94.33 9.71 93.67 9.68 92.00 9.59 95.00 T11 94.67 9.73 94.67 9.73 91.67 9.57 90.33 9.50 87.33 9.35 86.00 9.27 90.78 T12 93.67 9.68 92.67 9.63 91.67 9.57 90.00 9.49 88 9.38 87.67 9.36 90.61 SEM± 0.461 0.419 0.396 0.408 0.440 0.585 CD0.05 1.346 1.224 1.157 1.191 1.286 1.708 CV 0.85 0.78 0.75 0.78 0.86 1.16 Figures in the parentheses are square root transformed values y√x Table 10: Changes in Total dehydrogenase activity of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Total dehydrogenase activity Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 0.91 0.81 0.72 0.68 0.65 0.58 0.72 T2 0.92 0.82 0.73 0.69 0.67 0.59 0.74 T3 0.96 0.87 0.77 0.74 0.70 0.64 0.78

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184 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com T4 0.94 0.86 0.76 0.73 0.69 0.64 0.77 T5 0.94 0.84 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.62 0.75 T6 0.91 0.83 0.73 0.69 0.66 0.62 0.74 T7 0.95 0.83 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.61 0.75 T8 0.92 0.89 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.61 0.74 T9 0.97 0.89 0.80 0.77 0.73 0.67 0.81 T10 0.96 0.89 0.79 0.76 0.72 0.67 0.80 T11 0.93 0.84 0.74 0.71 0.67 0.62 0.75 T12 0.93 0.84 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.75 SEM± 0.003 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.004 CD0.05 0.011 0.007 0.009 0.010 0.008 0.012 CV 0.73 0.53 0.73 0.85 0.79 1.21 Table 11: Changes in Seed protein content of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Seed protein content Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 10.54 10.31 9.74 9.50 9.06 8.68 9.64 T2 11.00 10.70 10.31 10.02 9.63 9.29 10.16 T3 10.68 10.55 10.07 9.80 9.34 9.08 9.92 T4 10.67 10.34 9.94 9.61 9.26 9.01 9.80 T5 10.81 10.39 10.01 9.75 9.27 9.08 9.88 T6 10.78 10.38 10.01 9.74 9.18 9.04 9.85 T7 10.62 10.31 9.91 9.65 9.15 9.03 9.78 T8 10.64 10.36 9.82 9.58 9.18 8.99 9.76 T9 11.01 10.73 10.32 10.03 9.68 9.56 10.22 T10 10.79 10.40 10.15 9.62 9.32 9.09 9.90 T11 10.81 10.61 10.21 9.82 9.21 8.93 9.93 T12 10.74 10.53 10.14 9.72 9.17 8.84 9.86 SEM± 0.051 0.073 0.048 0.051 0.050 0.073 CD0.05 0.151 0.215 0.142 0.150 0.147 0.213 CV 0.84 1.22 0.84 0.92 0.94 1.40 Table 12: Changes in percent infected seed of maize seeds over 6 month of storage under ambient condition as influenced by seed polymer coating Treatment Percent infected seed Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 Mean T1 1.00 1.22 1.00 1.22 2.33 1.68 1.67 1.46 2.00 1.58 3.67 2.04 1.94 T2 0.67 1.05 1.00 1.22 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 1.67 1.46 3.00 1.87 1.72 T3 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 2.67 1.74 2.11 T4 1.00 1.22 0.67 1.05 1.67 1.46 1.67 1.46 2.33 1.68 2.33 1.68 1.61 T5 1.67 1.46 1.67 1.46 1.67 1.46 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 3.33 1.82 2.06 T6 2.67 1.77 1.33 1.29 1.33 1.29 2.00 1.58 2.33 1.68 3.33 1.82 2.17 T7 1.00 1.22 1.33 1.29 2.00 1.58 1.67 1.46 2.33 1.68 2.67 1.77 1.83 T8 1.33 1.29 1.67 1.46 1.67 1.46 2.33 1.68 2.00 1.58 2.00 1.58 1.83 T9 0.67 1.05 0.67 1.05 1.00 1.22 1.33 1.29 1.33 1.29 1.00 1.22 1.00 T10 0.00 0.70 0.33 0.88 1.00 1.22 1.33 1.29 1.67 1.46 2.33 1.68 1.11 T11 1.33 1.29 2.00 1.58 1.33 1.29 1.67 1.46 2.33 1.68 2.00 1.58 1.78 T12 1.33 1.29 1.33 1.29 2.00 1.58 1.67 1.46 1.67 1.46 1.67 1.46 1.61 SEM± 0.254 0.272 0.333 0.321 0.430 0.430 CD0.05 0.742 0.794 NS NS NS 1.255 CV 36.08 37.71 34.64 31.09 37.79 29.81 Figures in the parentheses are square root transformed values y √x+0.5 Conclusion From the present investigation it can be concluded that maize seeds coated with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg seed can be used to maintain significantly high germination and other seed quality parameters during storage in cloth bags in comparison with the untreated seed stored either in cloth bag or polythene bags. After 6 months of storage seeds treated with Little’s Polykote Red TM 3 ml/kg of seeds recorded the lowest seed moisture content 10.62 with maximum germination 93.00 shoot length 19.31 cm root length 16.17 cm seedling dry weight 0.61 g seed Vigor index-I 3299.64 seed Vigor index-II 56.73 field emergence 92.00 total dehydrogenase activity 0.67 total soluble protein content 9.56 and lowest infection 1.00 of seed borne pathogen. References 1. Vanangamudi K Srimathi P Natarajan N Bhaskaran M. Current scenario of seed coating polymer. ICAR - Short Course on Seed Hardening and Pelleting Technologies for Rain Fed or Garden Land Ecosystems 2003 80-100. 2. Taylor AG Allen PS Benett MA Bradford KJ Burris JS Misra MK. Seed enhancements. Seed Science Research. 1998 8:245-256.

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185 Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry http://www.phytojournal.com 3. Giang PL Rame Gowda. Influence of seed coating with synthetic polymers and chemicals on seed quality and storability of hybrid rice. Omonrice. 2007 15:68-74. 4. Vijay Kumar K Ravi Hunje Biradar Patil NK Vyakarnhal BS. Effect of seed coating with polymer. Fungicide and insecticide on seed quality in cotton during storage. Karnataka J Agric. Sci. 2007 201:137-139. 5. ISTA International Seed Testing Association. 1999. International rules for seed testing Supplement to Seed Science and Technology. 1999 27:27-32. 6. Abdul-Baki AS Anderson JD. Vigour determination in soybean by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 1973 13:630- 633. 7. Presley JT. Relation of protoplast permeability to cotton seed viability and predisposition to seedling disease. Plant Disease Reporter. 1958 427:852. 8. Perl M Luria I Gelmond H. Biochemical changes in sorghum seeds affected by accelerated ageing. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1978 29:497-509. 9. Steel RGD Torrie JH. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill New York 1984 82-83. 10. Duan X Burris JS. Film coating impairs leaching of germination inhibitors in sugarbeet seeds. Crop Sci. 1997 37:515-520. 11. West SH Loftin SK Wahl M Batich Beatty CL. Polymer and seed treatment as a moisture barrier to maintain seed quality. Crop Sci. 1985 25:941-944. 12. Meena RA Mishra MN Dani RG. Effect of storage containers on seed longevity cotton G. Hirsutum L.. Seed Tech News 1998 28:27. 13. Shivayogi R Biradar Patil NK Girredi RS Katageri IS. Effect of acid delinting seed treatment and containers on storability of cotton hybrid. Karnataka J Agril. Sci. 2009 221:56-60. 14. Badiger B. influence of seed coating with synthetic polymer and seed treatment chemicals on seed quality and longevity of cotton gossypium hirsutum l.. M. Sc. agri. Thesis University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore India 2011. 15. Shekhar Gouda M Katiyar RP Vaish CP. Storability of sunflower seeds harvested at physiological and field maturity. Seed Technol. News. 1998 284:76. 16. Hunje RV Kulkarni GN Shashidhara SD Vyakaranahal BS. Effect of insecticide and fungicide treatment on cowpea seed quality. Seed research. 1990 18:90-92. 17. Iqbal N Shahzad MA Basra Khalil-ur-rehman. evaluation of vigor and oil quality in cotton seed during accelerated ageing. Intl. J Agric. biol. 1560-8530/04- 3-318-322 2002. 18. Mahendrapal Grewal JS. Effect of fungicidal seed treatment on emergence and seed mortality of pigeonpea. Seed Res. 1985 131:204-205. 19. Paul SK Sharma Borah RK Nath PD. Maintenance of viability and Vigor of stored mungbean seeds under the ambient conditions in the hills zone of Assam. Ann. Agric. Res. 1996 172:196-198. 20. Basra SMA Ahmad N Khan MM Iqbal N Cheema MA. Assessment of cotton seed deterioration during accelerated ageing. Seed science Technology. 2003 31:531-540. 21. Saxena OP Maheshwari DC. Biochemical aspects of viability in soybean. Acta Botanica Indica. 1980 82:229-34. 22. Roberts EH. Seed deterioration and loss of viability Adv. Res. Technol. Seeds. 1979 4:25-42. 23. Mukewar PM. Present status of seed-borne diseases of cotton in India and the application of seeds treatments. Seed Res. 1994 22:586-594. 24. Chhabra BS Sher Singh Verma. Storage of Cotton Gossypium species Seed. Seed Research. 1997 1:327- 331.

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