rock climbing

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ROCK CLIMBING & RAPPELLING PRESENTED BY:- VARUN ANJAN SEM-2 nd PGDM{TL} IITTM

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CLIMBING Using your hands and feet or some aid equipment to scale a rock or synthetic rock wall .

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INTRODUCTION Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route. Rock climbing is similar to scrambling, but climbing is generally differentiated because of the use of hands to support the climber's weight as well as to provide balance . It is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber's strength, endurance, and balance along with his or her mental control. It is risky, but exciting sports. It is usually to be found only on the upper most slopes of high peaks.

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HISTORY Although the practice of rock climbing was an important component of Victorian mountaineering in the Alps, it is generally thought that the sport of rock climbing began in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in at least three areas: Elbsandsteingebirge , in Saxony, the Lake District of England, and the Dolomites in Italy. Heralded as a sport in England in the late 1880s after the solo first ascent of the Napes Needle by Walter Parry Haskett Smith, rock climbing attracted increasing numbers of participants.

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TYPES Traditional rock climbing - Traditional climbing is the sort of climbing you typically see in movies and in nature documentaries. Connected by a rope, pairs of climbers wearing harnesses scale a rock face carrying racks of specialized equipment. As they go, the climbers place wedges, nuts and other forms of protection from their racks into cracks in the rock. The rope is hooked to these pieces of protection so that, if a climber falls, the rope catches them Sport climbing - Sport climbing is like traditional climbing in most respects, except that the protective pieces are permanently bolted into the rock. The climber doesn't have to carry protection with him/her or place it along the way. This makes sport climbing safer, faster and less expensive than traditional climbing Free solo climbing - Free solo climbing is like sport climbing except you use no rope. If you fall, you die.

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Bouldering - Bouldering is like sport climbing, but you are climbing on boulders (or the sides of chimneys and buildings) rather than on cliffs and crags. Because the maximum height of a boulder is typically ten feet or so, bouldering is often done without ropes Lead climbing -In lead climbing, two people, a leader and a follower, ascend the climb in pitches: sections of the climb shorter than the length of the rope. First the leader climbs the pitch, wedging pieces of protection into the rock and attaching the rope to them with carabiners .

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Top roping - In top-roping, a rope from the top of the climb always holds the climber, making most slips off the climb harmless. As shown above, the climber is attached to one end of the rope, the middle is passed through an anchor at the top of the climb, and the other end is held by the belayer . The anchor at the top of the climb is assembled from loops of webbing connected to carabiners attached securely to the rock Others :- Indoor climbing. Ice climbing .

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RAPPELLING Rappelling is a specialized climbing technique that is used to descend from mountains and cliffs by making a controlled slide down a fixed rope. The climbing rope is anchored to a cliff with artificial anchors like cams, pitons, and bolts or natural anchors like trees and boulders. . The French word rappel, meaning “to recall,” comes from this retrieval. In Europe the technique is usually called abseiling, which comes from the German word abseilen , meaning “to rope down.” In England this is usually shortened to “ ab ,” as in “We’re going to ‘ ab ’ off now.” In the United States, climbers shorten the words rappel and rappelling to “rap” and “rapping;” .

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The origin of the abseil is attributed to J. E Charlet , a Chamonix guide who lived from 1840 - 1925 . Charlet originally devised the technique of the abseil (or rappel) method of roping down during a failed solo attempt of Petit Dru in 1876 . After many attempts, some of them solo, he managed to summit the Petit Dru in 1879 in the company of two other Chamonix guides, Prosper Payot and Frédéric Folliguet , whom he hired . During that ascent, Charlet perfected the abseil. HISTORY

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STYLES/TECHNIQUES Australian Rappelling - Involves descending facing down. Tandem or Spider Rappelling - Involves two climbers descending on the same belay device. This is done in some rescue situations when one of the climbers is incapacitated, or the descent needs to be done quickly. The set up is similar to a regular rappelling set up with the first climber is girth hitched off a sling into the descender on the carabiner , and has an auto block from belay loop of the harness to the rope as a backup. Simul Rappelling - Two separate rappellers on the two strands of the rope running through the anchors. Rappellers need to descend at the same speed as each other and should be anchored into each other to avoid the other getting ahead and causing problems. Counter Balance Rappelling - Used typically by a leader to reach an injured second. Idea is to rappel off on one strand of rope, using the incapacitated second's weight on the other strand of the rope to counterbalance.

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Equipments ROPE HELMET GLOVES

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COMMON KNOTS CARABINERS

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PROTECTION BAGS

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SPRING-LOADED CAMMING DEVICE (SLCD) FOOTWARE

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WEBBING AND HARNESSES

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BELAY DEVICES ASCENDER

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PLACES IN INDIA MUNNAR, KERALA MANALI, H.P SHIVGIRI, KARNATAKA RAMGARH, UTTARANCHAL MORI, UTTARANCHAL KAMALA, MAHARASHTRA MAUNT ABU, RAJASTHAN SONA MARG, J&K NEW DELHI

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PLACES IN ABROAD SPAIN GREECE EGYPT TURKEY ITALY MOROCCO MALTA FRANCE HUNGARY

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ORGANISATIONS ASSOCIATION OF MOUNTAINEERING INSTRUCTOR{AMI} ADVENTURE ACTIVITIES LICENCING AUTHORITIES{AALA} AMERICAN SAFE CLIMBING ASSOCIATION{ASCA} U.S.A CLIMBING TRIPLE CROWN BOULDERING INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SPORTS CLIMBING{IFSA} SAFE CLIMBING

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Whenever you climb, you are expected to exercise your ability and gears at hand to prevent any kind of injury. Appropriate training and gears facilitate lesser threat and hazards. However, it would not be able to get rid of the threats and hazards completely. It is vital to consider each and every aspect and be appropriately prepared and obtain suitable instructions prior to the ascent.

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