RFID Security Access Control System

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Presentation Description

This RFID (radio frequency-identification) based security access control system is used to allow only authorized persons to enter into specific areas.

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Presentation Transcript

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RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Introduction Automatic identification and access control system has become necessary to overcome the security threats faced by many organizations. By installing the system at the entrance will only allow the authorized persons to enter the organization. The system can also be installed at various points inside the organization to track the person’s movement and to restrict their access to sensitive areas in the organization. RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Block Diagram RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Hardware Components 8051 series Microcontroller RFID reader RFID tags Relay Relay driver IC Transformer Diodes Voltage Regulator Resistors Capacitor LED Lamp RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Circuit Diagram RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Microcontroller Microcontroller (MC) may be called computer on chip since it has basic features of microprocessor with internal ROM, RAM, Parallel and serial ports within single chip. This is widely used in washing machines, vcd player, microwave oven, robotics or in industries. Microcontroller can be classified on the basis of their bits processed like 8bit MC, 16bit MC . RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Readers and Tags RFID systems can be classified by the type of tag and reader . A   Passive Reader Active Tag  ( PRAT ) system has a passive reader which only receives radio signals from active tags. An  Active Reader Passive Tag  ( ARPT ) system has an active reader, which transmits interrogator signals and also receives authentication replies from passive tags . An  Active Reader Active Tag  ( ARAT ) system uses active tags awoken with an interrogator signal from the active reader. RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Relay Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal.  Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching . Magnetic latching relays require one pulse of coil power to move their contacts in one direction, and another, redirected pulse to move them back. RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Transformers The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are : RFID Security Access Control System The core, which makes a path for the magnetic flux . The primary coil, which receives energy from the ac source. The secondary coil, which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Diodes The 1N4148 is a standard small signal silicon diode used in signal processing. The 1N4148 is generally available in a DO-35 glass package and is very useful at high F requencies with a reverse recovery time of no more than 4ns. This permits rectification and detection of radio frequency signals very effectively, as long as their amplitude is above the forward conduction threshold of silicon (around 0.7V) or the diode is biased. RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Voltage Regulators A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit which maintains the output voltage (almost) constant in spite of changes within some specified limits in the load current, input voltage, temperature, etc. An IC based voltage regulator can be classified in different ways. A common type of classification is 3 terminal voltage regulator and 5 or multi terminal voltage regulator. RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Resistors Resistors are components used to resist the flow of electric current and have a stated value of RESISTANCE. Resistors can be either fixed or variable in value Fixed resistors come in a variety of different shapes, sizes and forms Axial lead resistors have the value of resistance printed on them or as a colour code RFID Security Access Control System

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Capacitor A basic capacitor has two parallel plates separated by an insulating material A capacitor stores an electrical charge between the two plates.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System LED Applications of LED : Devices, medical applications, clothing, toys • Remote Controls (TVs, VCRs) • Lighting • Indicators and signs • Optoisolators and Optocouplers .

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System RFID Technology RFID system consists of three components namely transponder (tag), interrogator (reader) and computer containing the database. The system offers diverse frequency band ranging from low frequencies to microwave frequencies. Low Frequency: 125-134 KHz High Frequency: 13.56 MHz Ultra High Frequency: 902-928 MHz Microwave Frequency: 2.4 GHz

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Working Principle The aim of this project is to design an RFID based security access control system using 8051 microcontroller, in which only authorised personnel are allowed access to a secure area. When the circuit is powered ON, the microcontroller will initially display a message as “Swipe the Card” on the LCD display . When the RFID Card or Tag is swiped against the RFID reader, it will detect the ID card and sends the unique card no. to the microcontroller via serial terminal.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Working Principle With the help of suitable programming, we need to compare the received card number with the numbers that are already stored in the microcontroller. If the received number is matched with the already stored number, then the microcontroller will display the name of the card holder or the identification number on the LCD and activates the motor driver IC.  As a result, the door is opened for a predefined duration after which the door is automatically closed . If there is no match for the received numbers with the stored numbers, then the microcontroller will not open the door and displays a message as “Access Denied” on the LCD display.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Operation Of RFID The security and access control system is comprised of two phases: R egistration phase R ecognition phase In the registration phase, Some images of the user are captured while issuing an RFID tag. The recognition phase comes when the user wants to enter the hostel.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Operation of RFID The entrance and exit modules use RFID recognition for identification. While mess module use RFID with a password to grant permission. These modules communicate with computer system through a main controller. The data exchange between the main controller and computer system is through serial port. While parallel port data and control lines are used for handshaking purposes.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Operation Of RFID After detecting and receiving RFID tag data through a serial interrupt routine, microcontroller searches the NV-RAM for this number. If no match is found, the microcontroller makes an emergency call to the security van through GSM modem. At the same time, it turns on the alarm signal. On the other hand, if a match is found, the microcontroller checks the entrance status of the user by scanning NV-RAM.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Security Access Rfid cards have been advertised as suitable for personal identification tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant . The chip usually implements some cryptographic algorithm. There are several methods for recovering some of the algorithm's internal state . Differential power analysis involves measuring the precise time and electrical current required for certain encryption or decryption operations.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System This can deduce the on-chip private key used by public key algorithms such as RSA . Some implementations of symmetric ciphers can be vulnerable to timing or power attacks as well. Rfid cards can be physically disassembled by using acid, abrasives, or some other technique to obtain unrestricted access to the on-board microprocessor. Although such techniques obviously involve a fairly high risk of permanent damage to the chip, they permit much more detailed information to be extracted. Security Access

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Functions Entrance Monitoring Controller Exit Monitoring Controller Mess Monitoring Controller Computer System and Web Server

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Benefits Enhances safety and security . Portability. Reliability. Reconfigurable and reusable.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Limitations Even though RFID Technology is secure, the security can be increased by integrating other security measures like facial detection, finger print scanner etc . As the card details are stored in the microcontroller, only a limited number of card details can be stored. This can be increased by implementing a memory unit like EEPROM.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System  Applications RFID based Security Access System is designed in this project. As the system uses RFID Technology based identification, it can be used to access secured areas like research centres, defence sites etc . It is a low power system and also the RFID Cards or Tags used are of passive type.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / RFID Security Access Control System Conclusion Design of a RFID security and access control system for use in radio frequency identification with biometrics technology to differentiate between valid and invalid users. The system accomplishes the security and access control task by processing information from sub-controllers.

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