Arduino Based Solar Street Light

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Presentation Description

The main aim of this project is to develop LED based street lights with auto intensity control system by using Arduino board and solar power from photovoltaic cells.

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Presentation Transcript

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Arduino Based Solar Street Light

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Introduction Arduino Based Solar Street Light The project is designed for LED based street lights with auto intensity control by an Arduino board using solar power from photovoltaic cells. As awareness for solar energy is increasing, more and more individuals and institutions are opting for solar energy. Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting the sunlight into electricity. A charge controller circuit is used to control the charging.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Block Diagram Arduino Based Solar Street Light

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Hardware Requirements Arduino Based Solar Street Light Arduino board White LEDs MOSFET Battery ATmega AVR series Microcontroller Regulator Solar Panel.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Software Requirements Arduino Based Solar Street Light Arduino Software Language: Arduino Programming Language

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Functional block diagram with explanation of each Block Arduino Based Solar Street Light

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Solar Panel: Arduino Based Solar Street Light A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. The solar panel converts the solar energy into electrical energy. Output of the solar panel is its power which is measured in terms of Watts or Kilo watts. Solar power uses multiple reflectors to collect more sun’s thermal energy . Thermal energy collected through the day to perform different operations. Performance of the solar panel depends on a number of factors like climate, conditions of the sky, orientation of the panel, intensity and duration of sunlight and its wiring connections.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino Based Solar Street Light Charge controller circuit: If the battery voltage is below 12V, then the current from LM317 IC flows to the battery. The current flow to the battery stops when the battery voltage rises to 13.5V. Hence charge controller circuit will prevent the battery to flow high current through it.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Rechargeable Battery: Arduino Based Solar Street Light A rechargeable battery, storage, secondary battery or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, while a non-rechargeable or primary battery is supplied fully charged, and discarded once discharged. Several different combinations of electrode materials and electrolytes are used, including lead–acid, nickel cadmium ( NiCd ), nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH), lithium ion (Li-ion), and lithium ion polymer (Li-ion polymer ).

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Voltage Divider circuit: Arduino Based Solar Street Light A voltage divider is a simple circuit which turns a large voltage into a smaller one. Using just two series resistors and an input voltage, we can create an output voltage that is a fraction of the input. Voltage dividers are one of the most fundamental circuits in electronics equation of circuit.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino UNO: Arduino Based Solar Street Light Micro-controller will control the intensity of light at different time slots. Micro controller circuit will generate PWM waves at a particular time using RTC (Real Time Clock) these system provide sets of digital and analog I/O pins that can be interfaced to the street light circuit. Operating voltage of Arduino UNO is 5v so that we will convert 12v from Battery to 5v.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino Based Solar Street Light Solar Panel Expose the cell to light, and the energy from each photon (light particle) hitting the silicon, will liberate an electron and a corresponding hole. If this happens within range of the electric field’s influence, the electrons will be sent to the N side and the holes to the P one, resulting in yet further disruption of electrical neutrality

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino Based Solar Street Light Solar Panel This flow of electrons is a current; the electrical field in the cell causes a voltage and the product of these two is power

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) : Arduino Based Solar Street Light Light dependent resistor is used to detect change in light intensity or as a light sensor. LDR is basically a variable resistor. LDR resistance changes with the change in intensity of light. If intensity of light falling on LDR is high, LDR will have low resistance. When intensity of light decreases, LDR offer high resistance. Hence there is a inverse relationship between intensity of light and resistance of LDR.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino Based Solar Street Light The LDR is a resistor, and its resistance varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR):

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Circuit Diagram Of Light Sensor And Street Light Control Using Arduino Arduino Based Solar Street Light

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Relay : Arduino Based Solar Street Light In this project, relay is used to provide isolation between low voltage circuitry and high voltage circuitry. Arduino is also used to provide control signal to relay whenever intensity of light falls below a certain level. Control signal is generated from pin 13 of Arduino which is used as a output pin. Transistor is used as a switch here. If you don’t know how to use input or output pins of Arduino UNO R3, read following article :

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Working Principle Arduino Based Solar Street Light Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting the sunlight into electricity. A charge controller circuit is used to control the charging. Intensity of street lights is required to be kept high during night. The Solar Street Lights work on the principle of the photovoltaic cell or solar cell. The solar cell converts solar energy to the electrical energy which is stored in battery.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino Based Solar Street Light The solar lamp draws the current from this battery and it requires no other wiring. The solar street lights use solar energy, a form of renewable energy.  The project design is developed using solar panel and a rechargeable battery. The project is designed for LED based street lights with scheduled ON time control by an Arduino board using solar power from photovoltaic cells and the rechargeable battery.  Working Principle

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Arduino Based Solar Street Light Through this system, the following result can be observed on the streets : Greater visibility of the streets on the scheduled time. Turning OFF of the streetlights during dawn wherein least travelers can be noticed. Working Principle

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Advantages: Arduino Based Solar Street Light Solar street lights are independent of the utility grid. Hence, the operation costs are minimized. Solar street lights require much less maintenance compared to conventional street lights. Since external wires are eliminated, risk of accidents is minimized. This is a non-polluting source of electricity. Separate parts of solar system can be easily carried to the remote areas.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Disadvantages: Arduino Based Solar Street Light Initial investment is higher compared to conventional street lights. Risk of theft is higher as equipment costs are comparatively higher. Snow or dust, combined with moisture can accumulate on horizontal pv -panels and reduce or even stop energy production. Rechargeable batteries will need to be replaced several times over the lifetime of the fixtures adding to the total lifetime cost of the light. The batteries have to be replaced from time to time.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Applications: Arduino Based Solar Street Light Solar Street Lighting System is an ideal lighting system for Roads, Yards, Residential Colonies, Townships, Corporate Offices, Hospitals, Educational Institutions and Rural Electrification . To be able to design a device that would add safety in dark areas . To be able to design an energy wise or efficient streetlight.  To be able to promote the use of solar power in any project as a source of energy during daytime and sunny days.

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http://www.edgefxkits.com / Conclusion Arduino Based Solar Street Light We have been discussing about solar street light system using Arduino . It is to save the energy, an automatic street light control is used to control the street lights (Turn on and off based on the light). It can also be interfaced to a LDR to follow the switching operation precisely.

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