Insect pests of chilli

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Insect pests of chilli:

Insect pests of chilli Important pests of chilli Chilli thrips : Scirtothrips dorsalis Green peach aphid: Myzus persicae Yellow mite or muranai mite: Polyphagotarsonemus latus

1. Chilli thrips: Scirtothrips dorsalis Symptoms of damage :

1. Chilli thrips : Scirtothrips dorsalis Symptoms of damage The infested leaves develop crinkles and curl upwards Elongated petiole Buds become brittle and drop down. Early stage, infestation leads to stunted growth and flower production, fruit set are arrested

Chilli thrips infestation - upward curling :

Chilli thrips infestation - upward curling photo

Identification of the pest Nymphs: Tiny, slender, fragile and straw yellow in colour Adult: with heavily fringed wings :

Identification of the pest Nymphs: Tiny, slender, fragile and straw yellow in colour Adult : with heavily fringed wings photo

Management:

Management Sprinkle water over the seedlings to check the multiplication of thrips Carbofuran 3G @ 200g/ cent area in the nursery Root dip the seedlings in monocrotphos 36 SL @ 0.05% for 20 min. before transplanting Spray dimethoate 30 EC 2ml/lit or  methyl demeton 25 EC 2ml/l

2. Green peach aphid: Myzus persicae :

2. Green peach aphid: Myzus persicae The infested plants turn pale with sicky appearance. The leaves curled and crinkled Honeydew excrete - development of sooty mould Stunted growth of the plant

Green peach aphid infestation - Crinkling :

Green peach aphid infestation - Crinkling photo

Identification of the pest Nymphs :

Identification of the pest Nymphs Nymphs initially are greenish, but soon turn yellowish. Adults – yellowish green in colour photoes

Management Trapping The attraction of yellow colour to winged aphids is utilized in trapping the pest. Bio-control Aphids are checked by several species of parasitoids, predators and pathogens under natural conditions Chemical Spray acephate 75 SP 1g/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2ml/lit or phosalone 35EC 2ml/ :

Management Trapping The attraction of yellow colour to winged aphids is utilized in trapping the pest. Bio-control Aphids are checked by several species of parasitoids, predators and pathogens under natural conditions Chemical Spray acephate 75 SP 1g/lit or methyl demeton 25 EC 2ml/lit or phosalone 35EC 2ml/

Yellow mite or muranai mite: Polyphagotarsonemus latus :

Yellow mite or muranai mite: Polyphagotarsonemus latus Downward curling and crinkling of leaves Leaves with elongated petiole Stunted growth

Yellow mite infestation - downward curling of leaves :

Yellow mite infestation - downward curling of leaves photo

Identification of the pest :

Identification of the pest Oval shaped eggs and white in colour Eggs glued firmly on the leaf surface Nymphs white in colour Adult : large, oval and broad and yellowish in colour photo

Management:

Management Spray dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml/ lit or wettable sulphur 50WP @ 5 g m / lit of water Encourage the activity of predatory mite: Amblyseius ovalis

Major pests of tomato:

Major pests of tomato Serpentine leaf miner: Liriomyza trifolii Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci Thrips: Thrips tabaci , F. schultzi Striped mealybug: Ferrisia virgata Red spider mite, Tetranychus spp.

Serpentine leaf miner: Liriomyza trifolii :

Serpentine leaf miner : Liriomyza trifolii Symptoms of damage Leaves with serpentine mines Mining symptom on leaf Drying and dropping of leaves

Leaf mining damage on leaves :

Leaf mining damage on leaves photo

Identification of the pest    :

Identification of the pest Larva: Minute orange yellowish apodous maggots. Pupa: Yellowish brown pupates within mines. Adult : Pale yellow in colour

Management Collect and destroy mined leaves Spray NSKE 3% :

Management Collect and destroy mined leaves Spray NSKE 3%

Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci :

Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci Symptoms of damage Chlorotic spots Yellowing Downward curling and drying of leaves. Vector of tomato leaf curl disease.

photoes:

photoes Fruit damage Fruit damage Silvery damage Tomato leaf curling Tomato leaf curling

Identification of the pest  :

Identification of the pest Egg -pear shaped, light yellowish, stalked Nymph: On hatching - Oval, scale-like, greenish white Adult: White, tiny, scale-like adults photoes Nymphs and adult

Management  :

Management Uproot and destroy the diseased leaf curl plants Use nitrogen and irrigation judiciously. Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum Use yellow sticky traps at 15/ha to attract and kill insects. Spray FORS 2% / neem oil 0.5% along with teepol 1 ml/lit (or) methyl demeton 0.25% endosulfan 0.7% along with FORS 1%

Thrips: Thrips tabaci, F. schultzi :

Thrips : Thrips tabaci , F. schultzi Symptoms of damage Silvery streaks on leaf surface pre-mature dropping of flowers Bud necrosis. Vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.

Identification of the pest :

Identification of the pest Nymphs: yellowish Adult: dark coloured with fringed wings

Management :

Management Mechanically uproot the diseased plants and destroy them Use yellow sticky traps @ 15/ ha Release larvae of Chrysoperla cornea @ 10,000/ ha Spray methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1lit/ha or dimethoate 30 EC @1lit/ha

Striped mealybug: Ferrisia virgata :

Striped mealybug : Ferrisia virgata Symptoms of damage Presence of white, cottony mealy bugs on the leaves and twigs Stunted growth.

Identification of the pest:

Identification of the pest Crawler: Yellowish to pale white in colour Adult: Females apterous, long, slender covered with white waxy secretion

PowerPoint Presentation:

photoes Mealy bug on tomato plants Spot like canker

Management :

Management Spray FORS 25g/lit or neem oil 0.5% along with teepol 1 ml/lit Spray any following insecticides Phosphomidon 40 SL 2ml/lit Imidacloprid 80.5 SC 0.6 ml/lit Chlorpriphos 20 EC 2ml/lit Thiamethoxam 25 WSG 0.6 mg/lit Profenophos 2ml/lit

Red spider mite, Tetranychus spp:

Red spider mite, Tetranychus spp Symptoms of damage Affected leaves become reddish brown and bronzy Severe infestation larvae silken webbing on the leaves Leaves wither and dry Flower and fruit formation affected

Identification of the pest:

Identification of the pest Eggs – hyaline, globular laid in mass Nymphs – yellowish in colour Adult – red coloured small sized

Management:

Management Spray dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5 ml/lit or wettable sulphur 50 WP 2g/li

Insect pests of gerbera:

Insect pests of gerbera photo Crop: Gerbera S.N: Gerbera jamesonii Family: Compositae Pests

Major pests of gerbera :

Major pests of gerbera Greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Leafminers, Liriomyza trifolii Mites, Polyphagotarsonemus latus Aphid, Myzus persicae

1. Greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum:

1. Greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Symptoms of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from underside of the leaves Identification of the pest photos

Management :

Management Release the larval parasitoid Encarsia formosa Use of yellow sticky traps to attract and collect the adults. Spray monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml/l. or neem oil @ 3 ml/l. of water.

. Leafminers, Liriomyza trifolii , L. soncho  :

. Leafminers , Liriomyza trifolii , L. soncho Symptoms of damage Caterpillars bore into the leaf and make irregularly shaped tunnels and feed on the inner tissue Affected leaves - light yellowish and turn brown later. photos

PowerPoint Presentation:

Egg Larva Pupa Adult

Management:

Management Field release of eulophid parasitoid Diglyphus isaea Use yellow sticky trap Spray dimethoate 30 EC or dichlorvos 76 EC @ 1 ml/l of water. Spray cholorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/l. of water. Spraying of need seed kernel extract 5% also check the incidence effectively

. Mites, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, Steneotarsonemus pallidus :

. Mites, Polyphagotarsonemus latus , Steneotarsonemus pallidus Symptoms of damage In the greenhouse - leaves and flower buds are adversely affected Severe attack - flowers become malformed and unsaleable Downward curling

Identification of the pest:

Identification of the pest Male mites are small and white to pale yellow in colour. Females are yellowish and bigger than the males. Active and fast moving yellowish mite. photo Nymphs and adult of yellow mite

. Aphid,  Myzus persicae , Aphis fabae :

. Aphid, Myzus persicae , Aphis fabae Symptoms of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from young leaves resulting in distortion of tissue. Management Spray malathion 50 EC or endosulfan 35 EC @ 2 ml/l of water or acephate 2gms/lit of water. Green peach aphids, Myzus persicae

Insect pests of anthurium:

Insect pests of anthurium photo Crop: Anthurium S.N: Anthurium spp Family: Araceae Pests

PowerPoint Presentation:

Aphid, Myzus circumflexus Thrips, Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, Aleurotulus anthuricola Red spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

Aphid, Myzus circumflexus :

Aphid, Myzus circumflexus Symptom of damage Nymphs and adults suck the plant sap Yellowing and distortion of leaves and poor growth. Honeydew excretion causes black sooty mould fungus

Management:

Management Spraying of any following insecticides dicofol 2ml/lit malathion 2ml/lit phosphomidon 2ml/lit A formulation containing pyrethrum extract gave effective control Field release of parasitic wasp Aphidius colemani 5/m2 per week

PowerPoint Presentation:

Aphidius colemani photo Adalia bipunctata photo Aphidius colemani Adalia bipunctata

Thrips, Chaetanaphothrips orchidii    :

Thrips , Chaetanaphothrips orchidii Symptoms of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves Mottled effect on foliage and flowers

Management:

Management In netted areas, insecticide granules are very effective in decreasing injury to flowers by C. orchidii Foliar sprays cyfluthrin 2.0 EC and chlorpyriphos 1ml/lit are effective in reducing the number of injured flowers. Spraying of dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l or phosphamidon 85 WSC @ 0.5 ml/l also controls thrips . Field release of predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris 500,000/ha Amblyseius cucumeris

Whitefly,  Bemisia tabaci, Aleurotulus anthuricola        :

Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci , Aleurotulus anthuricola Symptom of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves

Management:

Management Systemic insecticides like methomyl 1.8 L or dimethoate 30 EC ( reduced eggs, nymphs, pupae and adults.) Malathion 50 EC is effective against adults and pupae. Bifenthrin 10 WP was effective only against adults. Methomyl 1.8 L and acephate 75 SP reduced the number of nymphs and pupae Field release of parasitic wasp - Encarsia formosa 3/m2  can be followed

Encarsia formosa:

Encarsia formosa photo Encarsia formosa

4. Red spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus :

4. Red spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus Symptom of damage Spider mite causes - yellowish mottling of the leaves Leaves shrivel and turn brown. A fine web spun on the undersurface of leaves.

Identification of the pest Nymphs and adults are red in colour :

Identification of the pest Nymphs and adults are red in colour photo Adult

Management:

Management Spraying the affected plants with dicofol 18.5 EC @ 0.8 ml/l of water. Field release of predatory mite - Phytoseiulus persimilis 6/ m2 photo Phytoseiulus persimilis

Insect pests of carnation:

Insect pests of carnation photo Crop: Carnation S.N: Dianthus caryophyllus Family: Caryophyllaceae

Major pests of carnation :

Major pests of carnation Red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, T. cinnabarinus Aphids, Aphis gossypii Thrips, Thrips tabaci Carnation fly, Hylemya briennescens

Red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae                                                              T. cinnabarinus :

Red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae T. cinnabarinus photo Adult, Red spider mite

Symptom of damage :

Symptom of damage Spider mite is the most serious pest on carnations Nymphs and adults suck the sap from undersurface of the leaves Affected leaves turn pale and have a dusty coating and fine webs. In severe attack the growth of the plants becomes  stunted

Management:

Management Initiate management measures when the density of mite reaches 1/leaf (ETL). Use varieties having straight and flat leaves, which are proved to be resistant. Cleanliness and elimination of weeds will reduce the incidence of mite. Proper ventilation and water - prevent pest attack in greenhouse. Spraying of dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2 ml/l or wettable sulphur @ 3 g/l Spray application of chlorfenapyr 10 EC at 500 ml/ha (monthly interval) Fluvalinate 25 EC at 50 ml/ha also suppress T. cinnabarinus

2. Aphids, Aphis gossypii:

2. Aphids, Aphis gossypii Photo Symptom of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap and feeds on flower buds, leaves and terminal shoots It also transmits mottle virus Adult - Aphid

Management:

Management Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l of water before the opening of flower

3. Thrips, Thrips tabaci:

3. Thrips, Thrips tabaci Symptom of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves Plants become yellow often with black specks and slight crinkling. In severe attack the growth of the plant is adversely affected. Streaks on the flowers making them unmarketable.

Identification of the pest  T. tabaci - nymphs and adults are pale yellowish in colour:

Identification of the pest T. tabaci - nymphs and adults are pale yellowish in colour Management Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 1 ml/l or fenitrothion 50 EC @ 1 ml/l or malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/l of water.

Carnation fly, Hylemya briennescens      Symptom of damage                                             Maggots bore into the leaves and growing tips of young plants                Death of young plants by tunnelling down the apical shoot.     :

Carnation fly, Hylemya briennescens Symptom of damage Maggots bore into the leaves and growing tips of young plants Death of young plants by tunnelling down the apical shoot. Management Apply carbaryl 4G or phorate 10G @ 10 kg/ha to the soil followed by light irrigation. Spray malathion 50 EC @ 2 ml/l of water

Insect pests of gladiolus:

Insect pests of gladiolus Major pests of gladiolus Gladiolus thrips, Thrips simplex Honey suckle thrips Thrips flavus Flower thrips, Frankliniella spp Mirid bug, Lygus lineolaris

. Gladiolus thrips,  Thrips simplex:

. Gladiolus thrips, Thrips simplex Symptom of damage Deformities and discolouration of gladiolus flowers and corms (bulbs) Attacked- buds and flowers remain closed or open irregularly. Infested surfaces show whitish grey glistening photos

Identification of the pest :

Identification of the pest Egg - opaque white, smooth and bean shaped, deposited in the leaf tissue and corms. Adult - milky-white which later turn brown Wings have a light transverse band near the base. photo Adult - Thrips tabaci

Honey suckle thrips  Thrips flavus:

Honey suckle thrips Thrips flavus Symptom of damage Nymphs and adults feed on the blossoms which shrivell and become dark. Nymphs are white to pale yellow in colour. Identification of the pest Adults - yellow to orange in colour. Legs and forewings are yellow to pale yellow.

Flower thrips,  Frankliniella spp.:

Flower thrips, Frankliniella spp. Symptom of damage Flower thrips often invade gladiolus and damage the florets. Management for thrips Spray methyl demeton 25 EC or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l. of water. Spraying of malathion 50 EC @ 1.25 ml/l or carbaryl 50 WP @ 2g/l of water before the bud initiation. Spikes may be sprayed with methyl parathion 50 EC @ 1ml/l or endosulfan 35 EC @ 2ml/l of water ( flower emergence period)

Mirid bug,  Lygus lineolaris:

Mirid bug, Lygus lineolaris Symptom of damage Bugs - puncture the terminal shoot below the flower bud and inject toxic saliva Flower drop occurs Identification of the pest Nymphs are greenish. Adult bugs are mottled yellowish or reddish brown with flat, oval bodies

Adult photos:

Adult photos Management Destroy the weeds in the vicinity of the crop. Spray dimethoate 30 EC or  methyl demeton 25 EC 2ml/lit of water before flowering. Adult Mirid bug, Lygus lineolaris

Insect pests of orchids :

Insect pests of orchids Scales, Diaspis boisduvali,Aspidiotus destructor Mealy bugs, Planococcus sp Mites, Tetranychus urticae, Brevipalpus australis, B. cauliformicus Giant African Snail - Achatina fulica Symptoms

. Scales,  Diaspis boisduvali,Aspidiotus destructor :

. Scales, Diaspis boisduvali , Aspidiotus destructor Symptom of damage Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves It damages both leaves and pseudobulbs Honey dew excretion causes development of sooty mould fungus Yellowing of leaves Wither and dry up It is the common armoured scale found on cattleya and cymbidium.

Management :

Management The root extract of plant Derris is recommended. Spraying of fish oil rosin soap at 15 gms per lit of water. Field release of green lace wing larvae Chrysoperla carnea Conserve the predatory Lady bird beetles Cryptolaemus montrouzieri , Scymnus sp. Spraying of malathion 50 EC or methyl parathion 50 EC or phosalone 35 EC or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 1 ml/l

Mealy bugs:

Mealy bugs Symptom of damage Mealy bugs cover the stem and leaf, suck the sap, secrete honeydew and attract ants. In severe infestation, sooty mould may develop on the leaves. Affected plants lose their vigour

Management:

Management Lady bird beetles Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Scymnus sp. are known to feed mealy bugs. Spray malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/l or phosphamidon 85 WSC @ 0.5 ml/l of water.

Mites, Tetranychus urticae, Brevipalpus australis, B. cauliformicus:

Mites, Tetranychus urticae , Brevipalpus australis , B. cauliformicus photos Symptom of damage Red spider mite suck the sap from cells of leaves – causing white specks. In heavy infestation webbing on the plants. This is a serious pest on orchids during warm and dry season White specks on leaves

Management :

Management The predatory phytoseiid mites, Amblyseius sp. and Phytoseiulus persimilis are found to feed on spider mite. Spray dicofol 18.5 EC or dimethoate 30 EC or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml/l of water.

Snails Giant African Snail  - Achatina fulica:

Snails Giant African Snail  - Achatina fulica Symptom of damage They feed on the young leaves, roots, flower buds and even open flowers. Slugs usually hide during day and become active during night Presence of slimy fluid on foliage Management Apply 15% metaldehyde dust or 20% metaldehyde liquid. Sprinkle 5% metaldehyde pellets around the infested plant. If the population is low, collect and destroy.

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