Growth and development

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT : 

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT Nirmala Roberts Paediatric Nursing

Why study Growth & Development? : 

Why study Growth & Development? Know what to expect of a particular child at any age Assess child in terms of norms Guide in terms of more mature forms of behaviour Understand behavioural patterns of adults who care for children Diagnose malnutrition, infections & other diseases affecting G & D Recognize potential problems and strengths Assist parents to achieve optimum G & D Plan for comprehensive care of the child Work with children effectively in health & disease

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT : 

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT The sum of numerous changes that take place during the life time of an individual. A dynamic process with inter related dimensions. Growth – Increase in size or weight of a whole or any of its parts (quantitative) = Physical maturation Development – Emergence/ expansion of individual capacities through growth, maturation and learning (qualitative) = Functional maturation Maturation – Increase in competence and adaptability…to function at a higher level

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT… : 

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT… Prenatal – Conception to birth Germinal : Conception – 2 weeks Embryonic : 2 – 8 weeks Fetal : 8 – 40 weeks (birth) Infancy –Birth to 12 months Neonatal : Birth to 28 days Infancy : 29 days to 12 months (Rapid growth rate & total dependence) (Rapid motor, cognitive and social devt. ‘Trust’)

…STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT… : 

…STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT… Early childhood – 1 – 6 years Toddler : 1 – 3 years Preschooler : 3 – 6 years Middle childhood – School age 6 – 12 years Later childhood -11 – 19 years Prepubertal : 10 – 13 years Adolescence : 13 – 18 yearrs ((Intense activity, discovery, physical & personality devt. ‘Autonomy’, ‘Initiative’) - Physical, mental & social devt, peer relationships, skill competencies and self concept. ‘Industry’ (Rapid maturation and change, redefining of self concept. ‘Identity’)

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT (PATTERNS…TRENDS..) : 

PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT (PATTERNS…TRENDS..) Basic rule – Every child is unique - Growth is continuous, orderly & progressive - Growth is universal and basic to all Directional trend – Cephalocaudal, proximodistal, general to specific Sequential trend Developmental pace Sensitive periods Individual differences Cycles of behaviour Optimal tendency & terminal points Inter-relatedness Secular trends

PATTERNS OF GROWTH : 

General PATTERNS OF GROWTH 120 140 160 180 200 100 80 60 40 4 8 12 20 18 0 20 Lymphoid Neural Genital Growth % Age in years

Child Development & interaction between various factors : 

Child Development & interaction between various factors Play & activity Illnesses Nutrition Heredity Socio economic Environment Seasons/ O2 conc Socio-psychologic Neuro endocrine

Thanx : 

Thanx