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John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference : 

John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference

Slide 4: 

VS Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement(TRIPs) Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Agreement Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

Established: 1st January 1995.Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations (1986-94).Budget: 185 million Swiss francs for 2008.Secretariat staff: 625. Head: Pascal Lamy (Director-General).Membership: Countries on map. 153 countries (on 23 July 2008).New member: Ukraine : 

Established: 1st January 1995.Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations (1986-94).Budget: 185 million Swiss francs for 2008.Secretariat staff: 625. Head: Pascal Lamy (Director-General).Membership: Countries on map. 153 countries (on 23 July 2008).New member: Ukraine

Slide 7: 

Albania · Angola · Antigua and Barbuda · Argentina · Armenia · Australia · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Barbados · Belize · Benin · Bolivia · Botswana · Brazil · Brunei · Burkina Faso · Burma · Burundi · Cambodia · Cameroon · Canada · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Chile · PR China · Colombia · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Costa Rica · Côte d'Ivoire · Croatia · Cuba · Djibouti · Dominica · Dominican Republic · Ecuador · Egypt · El Salvador · European Union¹ · Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) · Fiji · Gabon · The Gambia · Georgia · Ghana · Grenada · Guatemala · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Guyana · Haiti · Honduras · Hong Kong² · Iceland · India · Indonesia · Israel · Jamaica · Japan · Jordan · Kenya · South Korea · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Lesotho · Liechtenstein · Macau² · Madagascar · Malawi · Malaysia · Maldives · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Mexico · Moldova · Mongolia · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Nepal · New Zealand · Nicaragua · Niger · Nigeria · Norway · Oman · Pakistan · Panama · Papua New Guinea · Paraguay · Peru · Philippines · Qatar · Rwanda · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Saudi Arabia · Senegal · Sierra Leone · Singapore · Solomon Islands · South Africa · Sri Lanka · Suriname · Swaziland · Switzerland · Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu³ · Tanzania · Thailand · Togo · Tonga · Trinidad and Tobago · Tunisia · Turkey · Uganda · Ukraine · United Arab Emirates · United States · Uruguay · Venezuela · Vietnam · Zambia · Zimbabwe Albania · Angola · Antigua and Barbuda · Argentina · Armenia · Australia · Bahrain · Bangladesh · Barbados · Belize · Benin · Bolivia · Botswana · Brazil · Brunei · Burkina Faso · Burma · Burundi · Cambodia · Cameroon · Canada · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Chile · PR China · Colombia · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Costa Rica · Côte d'Ivoire · Croatia · Cuba · Djibouti · Dominica · Dominican Republic · Ecuador · Egypt · El Salvador · European Union¹ · Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) · Fiji · Gabon · The Gambia · Georgia · Ghana · Grenada · Guatemala · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Guyana · Haiti · Honduras · Hong Kong² · Iceland · India · Indonesia · Israel · Jamaica · Japan · Jordan · Kenya · South Korea · Kuwait · Kyrgyzstan · Lesotho · Liechtenstein · Macau² · Madagascar · Malawi · Malaysia · Maldives · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Mexico · Moldova · Mongolia · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Nepal · New Zealand · Nicaragua · Niger · Nigeria · Norway · Oman · Pakistan · Panama · Papua New Guinea · Paraguay · Peru · Philippines · Qatar · Rwanda · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Saudi Arabia · Senegal · Sierra Leone · Singapore · Solomon Islands · South Africa · Sri Lanka · Suriname · Swaziland · Switzerland · Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu³ · Tanzania · Thailand · Togo · Tonga · Trinidad and Tobago · Tunisia · Turkey · Uganda · Ukraine · United Arab Emirates · United States · Uruguay · Venezuela · Vietnam · Zambia · Zimbabwe

PRINCIPAL OF TRADING Non-Discrimination. Reciprocity. Binding & enforceable commitments Transparency Safety valves.

WTO CONFERENCES WTO Ministerial Conference of 1996 Singapore WTO Ministerial Conference of 1998 Geneva in Switzerland. WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 Seattle, Washington

WTO CONFERENCES WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001 Doha, Qatar WTO Ministerial Conference of 2003 Cancún, Mexico WTO Ministerial Conference of 2005. Hong Kong

Slide 14: 

Freer trade cuts the cost of living It gives consumers more choice, & a broader range of qualities to choose from. Trade raises incomes. Trade stimulates economic growth, & that can be good news for employment The basic principles make the system economically more efficient, & they cut costs. The system allows disputes to be handled constructively. A system based on rules rather than power makes life easier for all. Advantages of WTO.

Slide 15: 

Disadvatage of WTO The WTO dictates policy The WTO is for free trade at any cost The WTO destroys jobs, worsens poverty Small countries are powerless in the WTO Weaker countries are forced to join the WTO The WTO is the tool of powerful lobbies Non-tariff barriers Competition

Slide 17: 

Please clarify ur Doubt ………