# Thermal Energy

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Thermal Energy A. Temperature & Heat 1. Temperature is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.

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2. SI unit for temp. is the Kelvin a. K = C + 273 (10C = 283K) b. C = K – 273 (10K = -263C) 3. Thermal Energy – the total of all the kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a substance.

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4. Thermal energy relationships a. As temperature increases, so does thermal energy (because the kinetic energy of the particles increased). b. Even if the temperature doesn’t change, the thermal energy in a more massive substance is higher (because it is a total measure of energy).

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5. Heat a. The flow of thermal energy from one object to another. b. Heat always flows from warmer to cooler objects. Ice gets warmer while hand gets cooler Cup gets cooler while hand gets warmer

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6. Specific Heat a. Some things heat up or cool down faster than others. Land heats up and cools down faster than water

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b. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material by one degree (C or K). 1) C water = 4184 J / kg C 2) C sand = 664 J / kg C This is why land heats up quickly during the day and cools quickly at night and why water takes longer.

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Why does water have such a high specific heat? Water molecules form strong bonds with each other; therefore it takes more heat energy to break them. Metals have weak bonds and do not need as much energy to break them. water metal

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How to calculate changes in thermal energy Q = m x T x C p Q = change in thermal energy m = mass of substance T = change in temperature (T f – T i ) C p = specific heat of substance

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c. A calorimeter is used to help measure the specific heat of a substance. First, mass and temperature of water are measured Then heated sample is put inside and heat flows into water T is measured for water to help get its heat gain This gives the heat lost by the substance Knowing its Q value, its mass, and its T, its C p can be calculated