Storage class in C


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Storage Classes in C : 

Storage Classes in C Dept. of IT, RGUKT, Basar

Objectives : 

2 Objectives Automatic variables External variables Static variables Register variables Scopes and longevity of above types of variables.

Introduction : 

Introduction C is rich in its data type Every c variable has a characteristic is called its storage class The storage class defines four characteristics of a variable Life Time Visibility(Scope) Local variables Global variables 3

Introduction(cont..) : 

Introduction(cont..) Scope: the scope of a variable determines over what part(s) of the program a variable is actually available for use(active). Longevity: it refers to the period during which a variables retains a given value during execution of a program(alive) Local variables: are those which are declared within a particular function. Global variables: are those which are declared outside any function. 4

Automatic Variables : 

Automatic Variables Are declare inside a function in which they are to be utilized. Are declared using a keyword auto. eg. auto int number; Are created when the function is called and destroyed automatically when the function is exited. This variable are therefore private(local) to the function in which they are declared. Variables declared inside a function without storage class specification is, by default, an automatic variable. 5

Example : 

Example int main() { int m=1000; function2(); printf(“%d\n”,m); } function1() { int m = 10; printf(“%d\n”,m); } function2() { int m = 100; function1(); printf(“%d\n”,m); } 6 Output 10 100 1000

Few observation about auto variables : 

7 Few observation about auto variables Any variable local to main will normally live throughout the whole program, although it is active only in main. During recursion, the nested variables are unique auto variables. Automatic variables can also be defined within blocks. In that case they are meaningful only inside the blocks where they are declared. If automatic variables are not initialized they will contain garbage.

External Variables : 

8 External Variables These variables are declared outside any function. These variables are active and alive throughout the entire program. Also known as global variables and default value is zero. Unlike local variables they are accessed by any function in the program. In case local variable and global variable have the same name, the local variable will have precedence over the global one. Sometimes the keyword extern used to declare these variable. It is visible only from the point of declaration to the end of the program.

External variable (examples) : 

9 External variable (examples) int GlobalVariable void SomeFunction() int main() { GlobalVariable = 1; SomeFunction(); return 0; } extern int GlobalVariable; void SomeFunction() { ++GlobalVariable; printf(“%d”,GlobalVariable); } File1 File2

Global variable example : 

10 Global variable example int x; int main() { x=10; printf(“x=%d\n”,x); printf(“x=%d\n”,fun1()); printf(“x=%d\n”,fun2()); printf(“x=%d\n”,fun3()); } int fun1() { x=x+10; return(x); } int fun2() { int x x=1; return(x); } int fun3() { x=x+10; return(x); } Once a variable has been declared global any function can use it and change its value. The subsequent functions can then reference only that new value. Output x=10 x=20 x=1 x=30

External declaration(examples) : 

11 External declaration(examples) int main() { extern int y; . . . . . . } func1() { extern int y; . . . . . . } int y; Note that extern declaration does not allocate storage space for variables

Static Variables : 

12 Static Variables The value of static variables persists until the end of the program. It is declared using the keyword static like static int x; static float y; It may be of external or internal type depending on the place of there declaration. Static variables are initialized only once, when the program is compiled.

Internal static variable : 

13 Internal static variable Are those which are declared inside a function. Scope of Internal static variables extend upto the end of the program in which they are defined. Internal static variables are almost same as auto variable except they remain in existence (alive) throughout the remainder of the program. Internal static variables can be used to retain values between function calls.

Examples (internal static) : 

14 Examples (internal static) Internal static variable can be used to count the number of calls made to function. eg. int main() { int I; for(i =1; i<=3; i++) stat(); } void stat() { static int x=0; x = x+1; printf(“x = %d\n”,x); } Output x=1 x=2 x=3

External static variables : 

15 External static variables An external static variable is declared outside of all functions and is available to all the functions in the program. An external static variable seems similar simple external variable but their difference is that static external variable is available only within the file where it is defined while simple external variable can be accessed by other files.

Static function : 

16 Static function Static declaration can also be used to control the scope of a function. If you want a particular function to be accessible only to the functions in the file in which it is defined and not to any function in other files, declare the function to be static. eg. static int power(int x, inty) { -------- -------- }

Register Variable : 

17 Register Variable These variables are stored in one of the machine’s register and are declared using register keyword. eg. register int count; Since register access are much faster than a memory access keeping frequently accessed variables in the register lead to faster execution of program. Since only few variable can be placed in the register, it is important to carefully select the variables for this purpose. However, C will automatically convert register variables into non-register variables once the limit is reached. Don’t try to declare a global variable as register. Because the register will be occupied during the lifetime of the program.

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