Bacterial-Viral Disease_Part1

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265 Actinobacillosis Actinobacillus suis causes septicaemia in neonates, vegetative endocarditis, arthritis in slightly older pigs and pleuropneumonia in older animals. These lungs are from a case of neonatal septicaemia and show the most obvious lesions (arrows). Histological lesions are pathognomonic and consist of areas of necrosis containing microcolonies of the organism. :

265 Actinobacillosis Actinobacillus suis causes septicaemia in neonates, vegetative endocarditis, arthritis in slightly older pigs and pleuropneumonia in older animals. These lungs are from a case of neonatal septicaemia and show the most obvious lesions (arrows). Histological lesions are pathognomonic and consist of areas of necrosis containing microcolonies of the organism.

266 Actinobacillus suis Lungs from a five- day-old piglet. Note the miliary abscesses (arrow), the oedema and the congestion. :

266 Actinobacillus suis Lungs from a five- day-old piglet. Note the miliary abscesses (arrow), the oedema and the congestion .

267 Actinobacillus suis Section through the lung shown in 266. Note the mottled appearance and the areas of pneumonia. :

267 Actinobacillus suis Section through the lung shown in 266 . Note the mottled appearance and the areas of pneumonia.

268 Actinobacillus suis Liver from a case of A. suis septicaemia in a five-day-old piglet. Pinhead yellowish microabscesses can be seen on the surface of the liver. :

268 Actinobacillus suis Liver from a case of A. suis septicaemia in a five-day-old piglet. Pinhead yellowish microabscesses can be seen on the surface of the liver.

269 Actinobacillosis Actinobacillus lignieresi infection of the udder of a sow. Note the hard lumps made prominent by stretching the skin and the multiple scabs around the nipple. These represent temporarily-healed sinuses where the underlying granulomas have discharged to the exterior. :

269 Actinobacillosis Actinobacillus lignieresi infection of the udder of a sow. Note the hard lumps made prominent by stretching the skin and the multiple scabs around the nipple. These represent temporarily-healed sinuses where the underlying granulomas have discharged to the exterior.

270 Actinobacillosis Hard, granulomatous lesions in one or more mammae of the sow's udder are often described as 'Actinobacillosis'. In some cases, actinobacilli can be isolated and the diagnosis confirmed; in others, staphylococci are isolated. Note the firm nature of the lesions in the udder.:

270 Actinobacillosis Hard, granulomatous lesions in one or more mammae of the sow's udder are often described as 'Actinobacillosis'. In some cases, actinobacilli can be isolated and the diagnosis confirmed; in others, staphylococci are isolated. Note the firm nature of the lesions in the udder.

271 Anthrax A pig which has recently died from anthrax. Note the thickened and oedematous skin (arrow) and the enlarged lymph nodes. Smears made from this area often contain the bacilli which are often not visible in conventional blood smears:

271 Anthrax A pig which has recently died from anthrax. Note the thickened and oedematous skin (arrow) and the enlarged lymph nodes. Smears made from this area often contain the bacilli which are often not visible in conventional blood smears

272 Anthrax A pig which has died of anthrax. Note the swollen jowl and the fluid running from the wound.:

272 Anthrax A pig which has died of anthrax. Note the swollen jowl and the fluid running from the wound.

273 Brucella suis This boar has enlargement of the left testicle caused by infection with B. suis:

273 Brucella suis This boar has enlargement of the left testicle caused by infection with B. suis

274 Brucella suis A large white boar with B. suis orchitis. Note the enlargement of the testis.:

274 Brucella suis A large white boar with B. suis orchitis. Note the enlargement of the testis.

275 Brucella suis Longitudinal section of porcine testes illustrating degrees of orchitis due to B.suis infection. The gross enlargement of the testis on the right is due to necrosis of the seminiferous tubules with thickening of the interstitial tissue. The smaller testicle on the left contains pale areas of necrotic seminiferous tubules. :

275 Brucella suis Longitudinal section of porcine testes illustrating degrees of orchitis due to B.suis infection. The gross enlargement of the testis on the right is due to necrosis of the seminiferous tubules with thickening of the interstitial tissue. The smaller testicle on the left contains pale areas of necrotic seminiferous tubules.

276 Bordete1la broncbiseptica The most common lesions of Bordetella pneumonia are those of lobular collapse, seen here as incidental findings in a four-week-old pig from a flat deck weaner unit. Note the distribution of the lesions (arrows). :

276 Bordete1la broncbiseptica The most common lesions of Bordetella pneumonia are those of lobular collapse, seen here as incidental findings in a four-week-old pig from a flat deck weaner unit. Note the distribution of the lesions (arrows).

277 Bordetella broncbiseptica causes rhinitis and bronchitis in young non-immune pigs. When the bronchitis is severe, mucus and pus accumulate in the bronchioles and may be inspired to cause pneumonia. This may be fatal, or it may depress growth. Early lesions are shown in this photograph. The organism can be isolated from both bronchi and lesions at this stage. :

277 Bordetella broncbiseptica causes rhinitis and bronchitis in young non-immune pigs. When the bronchitis is severe, mucus and pus accumulate in the bronchioles and may be inspired to cause pneumonia. This may be fatal, or it may depress growth. Early lesions are shown in this photograph. The organism can be isolated from both bronchi and lesions at this stage .

278 Bordetella bronchiseptica The distal portion of a cranial lung lobe showing lesions typical of Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia and its consequences. The dark areas of collapse surround pale areas of over- inflation. :

278 Bordetella bronchiseptica The distal portion of a cranial lung lobe showing lesions typical of Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia and its consequences. The dark areas of collapse surround pale areas of over- inflation.

279 Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis The bloodstained faeces shown here is typical of that seen in affected neonatal pigs. :

279 Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis The bloodstained faeces shown here is typical of that seen in affected neonatal pigs.

280 Clostrjdium perfringens type C enteritis Close-up of the haemorrhagic intestines of a piglet which has died from this disease. Note the heavily-congested areas where roughening of the intestinal wall has resulted from a combination of gas formation in the wall and intense local peritonitis (arrow). :

280 Clostrjdium perfringens type C enteritis Close-up of the haemorrhagic intestines of a piglet which has died from this disease. Note the heavily-congested areas where roughening of the intestinal wall has resulted from a combination of gas formation in the wall and intense local peritonitis (arrow).

281 Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis Small intestine of a neonatal piglet with Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis opened to demonstrate the bloodstained nature of the contents. :

281 Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis Small intestine of a neonatal piglet with Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis opened to demonstrate the bloodstained nature of the contents.

282 Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis Small intestine from a chronic case. Note necrosis and thickening of the bowel wall (arrow). :

282 Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis Small intestine from a chronic case. Note necrosis and thickening of the bowel wall (arrow).

283 Clostridium novyi ( oedematiens) Large finishing pigs or sows may die suddenly as a result of infection with Clostridium novyi. Animals are usually in good condition and markedly bloated. This photograph shows the carcasse of one such pig which was one of seven heavy hogs to die on a swill-fed unit over a period of one month:

283 Clostridium novyi ( oedematiens) Large finishing pigs or sows may die suddenly as a result of infection with Clostridium novyi . Animals are usually in good condition and markedly bloated. This photograph shows the carcasse of one such pig which was one of seven heavy hogs to die on a swill-fed unit over a period of one month .

284 Clostridium novyi ( oedematiens) The livers of pigs which have died from Clostridium novyi infection contain cavities similar to those shown here (arrow). Similar cavities also develop during post mortem decomposition, and diagnosis depends on the demonstration of the organism in the lesions, the freshness of the carcasse and the success of vaccination in prevention. :

284 Clostridium novyi ( oedematiens) The livers of pigs which have died from Clostridium novyi infection contain cavities similar to those shown here (arrow). Similar cavities also develop during post mortem decomposition, and diagnosis depends on the demonstration of the organism in the lesions, the freshness of the carcasse and the success of vaccination in prevention.

285 Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis This condition occurs in neonatal piglets and is rarely fatal. Pasty, mucoid diarrhoea begins within 12-36 hours of birth and affected piglets lose condition and develop the perineal faecal staining shown here in this 48-hour-old piglet. :

285 Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis This condition occurs in neonatal piglets and is rarely fatal. Pasty, mucoid diarrhoea begins within 12-36 hours of birth and affected piglets lose condition and develop the perineal faecal staining shown here in this 48-hour-old piglet.

286 Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis Piglets which die from the disease often develop subnormal body temperature prior to death and show marked blackening of the abdominal skin surface. This animal was killed in the terminal stages of the disease. Note the blackened abdominal skin (arrow), the congested carcasse and the distended, gas-filled intestines:

286 Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis Piglets which die from the disease often develop subnormal body temperature prior to death and show marked blackening of the abdominal skin surface. This animal was killed in the terminal stages of the disease. Note the blackened abdominal skin (arrow), the congested carcasse and the distended, gas-filled intestines .

287 Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis Small intestine from a case of Clostridium perfringens type A infection in a neonatal piglet. The intestine is reddened and dilated with fluid, and the mucosa is covered with small patches of necrotic material. :

287 Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis Small intestine from a case of Clostridium perfringens type A infection in a neonatal piglet. The intestine is reddened and dilated with fluid, and the mucosa is covered with small patches of necrotic material.

288 Clostridium tetani (Tetanus) Two live weaned pigs in tetanic spasm. Note the pricked ears and rigidly extended limbs. Infection had entered by way of contaminated castration wounds. Both pigs recovered:

288 Clostridium tetani (Tetanus) Two live weaned pigs in tetanic spasm. Note the pricked ears and rigidly extended limbs. Infection had entered by way of contaminated castration wounds. Both pigs recovered .

289 Campylobacter coli Thickened ileum of a piglet experimentally infected with Campylobacter coli. Note the enlarged lymph nodes (arrow) and pale, thickened ileal wall:

289 Campylobacter coli Thickened ileum of a piglet experimentally infected with Campylobacter coli. Note the enlarged lymph nodes (arrow) and pale, thickened ileal wall .

290 Proliferative Intestinal Adenomatosis (PIA) Affected 12-week-old pigs. Note their poor condition and pot bellies:

290 Proliferative Intestinal Adenomatosis (PIA) Affected 12-week-old pigs. Note their poor condition and pot bellies .

291 Proliferative Intestinal Adenomatosis Inflammation of the anterior ileal mucosa:

291 Proliferative Intestinal Adenomatosis Inflammation of the anterior ileal mucosa .

292 Regional ileitis (RI) At this late stage of the proliferative intestinal adenopathy process, the proliferated mucosa has almost filled the lumen of the gut on the left while muscular hypertrophy has caused rigidity of the bowel on the right. The bowel wall is weakened and may rupture; a generalised peritonitis results:

292 Regional ileitis (RI) At this late stage of the proliferative intestinal adenopathy process, the proliferated mucosa has almost filled the lumen of the gut on the left while muscular hypertrophy has caused rigidity of the bowel on the right. The bowel wall is weakened and may rupture; a generalised peritonitis results 294 Necrotic enteritis (NE) Necrotic enteritis of the ileum in which the proliferative changes of PIA have become necrotic.

293 Necrotic enteritis (NE) Terminal ileum of a pig with necrotic enteritis. Note the distended bowel, through the wall of which pale patches can be seen. The opened portion shows the necrotic, formerly proliferative mucosa. :

293 Necrotic enteritis (NE) Terminal ileum of a pig with necrotic enteritis. Note the distended bowel, through the wall of which pale patches can be seen. The opened portion shows the necrotic, formerly proliferative mucosa.

295 Proliferative Haemorrhagic Enteropathy (PHE) Intestinal tract from a case of proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy. Note the presence of a blood clot in the ileum (arrow), the corrugated mucosa of the ileum and the reddened appearance of the large intestinal contents. This reddening is largely due to blood passing from the ileum. 296 Proliferative Haemorrhagic Enteropathy (PHE) Terminal ileum opened to show the blood clot in the lumen:

295 Proliferative Haemorrhagic Enteropathy (PHE) Intestinal tract from a case of proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy. Note the presence of a blood clot in the ileum (arrow), the corrugated mucosa of the ileum and the reddened appearance of the large intestinal contents. This reddening is largely due to blood passing from the ileum. 296 Proliferative Haemorrhagic Enteropathy (PHE) Terminal ileum opened to show the blood clot in the lumen . .

297 Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenes A. (C. ) pyogenes is involved in abscesses in many different parts of the body. Here the left elbow joint of a 32 kg weaner is affected by septic arthritis and is enlarged.:

297 Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenes A. (C. ) pyogenes is involved in abscesses in many different parts of the body. Here the left elbow joint of a 32 kg weaner is affected by septic arthritis and is enlarged.

298 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Carcasse of a growing pig with gross lesions of septic arthritis from which A. pyogenes was isolated. Note the swollen right elbow:

298 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Carcasse of a growing pig with gross lesions of septic arthritis from which A. pyogenes was isolated. Note the swollen right elbow .

299 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes A. (C. ) pyogenes abscesses frequently occur in the spine, often as a result of tail biting (654-660). In this picture, a 24 kg weaner is seen in a position typical of paralysis, seated and immobile amongst a group of active pen- mates:

299 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes A. (C. ) pyogenes abscesses frequently occur in the spine, often as a result of tail biting ( 654-660 ). In this picture, a 24 kg weaner is seen in a position typical of paralysis, seated and immobile amongst a group of active pen- mates .

300 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes The pig in 299, shown on its own to demonstrate the extent of the paralysis. :

300 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes The pig in 299 , shown on its own to demonstrate the extent of the paralysis.

301 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Spinal abscess in the paralysed pig shown in 299. Note the site of the abscess (arrow} in the vertebral body and the way it can compress the spinal cord to cause paralysis, In some cases the vertebral body collapses. The pus is typical of that produced in A. (C.) pyogenes infection; uniform in consistency; white, greyish-white or greenish-white in colour; and may smell foul. :

301 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Spinal abscess in the paralysed pig shown in 299 . Note the site of the abscess (arrow} in the vertebral body and the way it can compress the spinal cord to cause paralysis, In some cases the vertebral body collapses. The pus is typical of that produced in A. (C.) pyogenes infection; uniform in consistency; white, greyish-white or greenish-white in colour; and may smell foul.

302 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Abscesses on the parietal pleura along a rib. An incidental finding at post mortem examination of a weaner. :

302 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Abscesses on the parietal pleura along a rib. An incidental finding at post mortem examination of a weaner.

303 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Septic endometritis in a sow post-farrowing due to A. (C.) pyogenes. Note the vaginal discharge. :

303 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Septic endometritis in a sow post-farrowing due to A. (C.) pyogenes . Note the vaginal discharge.

304 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Intra-uterine infection may result in complete digestion of the foetus to leave only the bones in a pool of pus (arrow). However, it may not be the original cause of death of the foetus. :

304 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Intra-uterine infection may result in complete digestion of the foetus to leave only the bones in a pool of pus (arrow). However, it may not be the original cause of death of the foetus.

305 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Septic endometritis in sow uterus. Note the pus on the inflamed endometrium. :

305 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Septic endometritis in sow uterus. Note the pus on the inflamed endometrium.

306 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Massive liver abscess. The portion of the liver on the right- hand side of the picture has been replaced by an abscess (arrow). :

306 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Massive liver abscess. The portion of the liver on the right- hand side of the picture has been replaced by an abscess (arrow). 307 Actinomyces (C.) pyogenes Severe septic pericarditis which caused the death of a 35 kg pig. Note the creamy pus.

308 Eubacterium (C.) suis A congenitally- lobulated kidney with a massively enlarged and inflamed ureter caused by E. suis infection ascending from the bladder. :

308 Eubacterium (C.) suis A congenitally- lobulated kidney with a massively enlarged and inflamed ureter caused by E. suis infection ascending from the bladder. 309 Eubacterium (C.) suis Bladder of a sow with acute cystitis due to infection with E. suis. Note the purulent material and the inflamed mucosa.

310 Eubacterium (C.) suis Kidney and bladder of a sow with E. sujs infection. Note the inflamed mucosa of the bladder. In some cases there may be severe congestion of the kidney. :

310 Eubacterium (C.) suis Kidney and bladder of a sow with E. sujs infection. Note the inflamed mucosa of the bladder. In some cases there may be severe congestion of the kidney.

311 Eubacterium (C.) suis Longitudinal section of kidney from a sow with pyelonephritis caused by E. sujs infection. Note the inflamed pelvis and the massively dilated ureter. Pus from the urine, bladder wall, ureter and kidney pelvis contains Gram- positive rods. :

311 Eubacterium (C.) suis Longitudinal section of kidney from a sow with pyelonephritis caused by E. sujs infection. Note the inflamed pelvis and the massively dilated ureter. Pus from the urine, bladder wall, ureter and kidney pelvis contains Gram- positive rods.

312 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Pig with subacute erysipelas. The skin lesions are typical. On the hind leg the raised nature of the lesions can be clearly seen:

312 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Pig with subacute erysipelas. The skin lesions are typical. On the hind leg the raised nature of the lesions can be clearly seen .

313 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Closer view of the typical skin lesions of subacute erysipelas shown in 312.:

313 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Closer view of the typical skin lesions of subacute erysipelas shown in 312 .

314 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Chronic erysipelas may result from persisting infection in the heart valves to give a valvular endocarditis. Affected pigs of any age may show clinical signs of heart failure such as cyanosis of the extremities or be found dead. The carcase of this 30kg pig, which died from vegetative endocarditis, shows this congestion over the hindquarters and on the ears. :

314 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Chronic erysipelas may result from persisting infection in the heart valves to give a valvular endocarditis. Affected pigs of any age may show clinical signs of heart failure such as cyanosis of the extremities or be found dead. The carcase of this 30kg pig, which died from vegetative endocarditis, shows this congestion over the hindquarters and on the ears.

315 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) A heart from a pig with chronic erysipelas vegetative endocarditis. Note the large vegetations on the atrio-ventricular valves:

315 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) A heart from a pig with chronic erysipelas vegetative endocarditis. Note the large vegetations on the atrio-ventricular valves .

316 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Kidney lesions in acute erysipelas. These are not common. :

316 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Kidney lesions in acute erysipelas. These are not common.

317 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) A kidney from a pig with vegetative endocarditis resulting from chronic erysipelas. Note the pale area of the infarct on the cortex of the kidney at top right. :

317 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) A kidney from a pig with vegetative endocarditis resulting from chronic erysipelas. Note the pale area of the infarct on the cortex of the kidney at top right.

318 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) A kidney from a pig with chronic erysipelas vegetative endocarditis, sectioned to show a pale infarct caused by an embolus (arrow). :

318 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) A kidney from a pig with chronic erysipelas vegetative endocarditis, sectioned to show a pale infarct caused by an embolus (arrow).

319 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Spleen from a 70kg pig which died with vegetative endocarditis caused by E. rhusjopathjae. Infarcts can be seen as dark patches. :

319 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Spleen from a 70kg pig which died with vegetative endocarditis caused by E. rhusjopathjae . Infarcts can be seen as dark patches.

320 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Weaner showing clinical signs of chronic erysipelas. The arthritis resulting from the localisation of the organism in the joints has produced a severe lameness. :

320 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Weaner showing clinical signs of chronic erysipelas. The arthritis resulting from the localisation of the organism in the joints has produced a severe lameness.

321 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Arthritis in chronic erysipelas from infection of the joint cavity and the subsequent proliferation of the synovial tissue. The femoral head shown here illustrates the hyperaemia and proliferation of the synovial membrane (arrow) and the erosion of the cartilage which occasionally accompanies it. :

321 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) Arthritis in chronic erysipelas from infection of the joint cavity and the subsequent proliferation of the synovial tissue. The femoral head shown here illustrates the hyperaemia and proliferation of the synovial membrane (arrow) and the erosion of the cartilage which occasionally accompanies it.

322 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) An arthritic joint with synovitis and pannus formation. :

322 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) An arthritic joint with synovitis and pannus formation.

322 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) An arthritic joint with synovitis and pannus formation. :

322 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection (Erysipelas) An arthritic joint with synovitis and pannus formation.

324 Glasser's disease A pig with meningitis. Note the evidence of paddling movements with its limbs. :

324 Glasser's disease A pig with meningitis. Note the evidence of paddling movements with its limbs.

325 Glasser's disease Carcase of a pig which has died from Glasser's disease. Note the cyanosis of the extremities and the focal skin lesions:

325 Glasser's disease Carcase of a pig which has died from Glasser's disease. Note the cyanosis of the extremities and the focal skin lesions .

326 Glasser's disease Close up of the skin lesions from the pig shown in 325. :

326 Glasser's disease Close up of the skin lesions from the pig shown in 325 .

327 Glasser's disease Carcase of a 40 kg pig which died from Glasser's disease showing necrosis of the ears and the characteristic thickening of the pinna seen in many affected pigs (arrow). :

327 Glasser's disease Carcase of a 40 kg pig which died from Glasser's disease showing necrosis of the ears and the characteristic thickening of the pinna seen in many affected pigs (arrow).

328 Glasser's disease Pleural cavity of a pig which died from Glasser's disease. There is fibrinous pericarditis (arrow) and fibrinous perihepatitis (right). The organism (H. parasuis) can be cultured from the lesions in early cases, but is more difficult to recover from chronic cases, or from pigs which have been treated. :

328 Glasser's disease Pleural cavity of a pig which died from Glasser's disease. There is fibrinous pericarditis (arrow) and fibrinous perihepatitis (right). The organism ( H. parasuis ) can be cultured from the lesions in early cases, but is more difficult to recover from chronic cases, or from pigs which have been treated.

329 Glasser's disease Lungs from a 20kg pig which had died from Glasser's disease. Note the clotted blood in the trachea, a feature sometimes seen in young pigs which have died from this disease. :

329 Glasser's disease Lungs from a 20kg pig which had died from Glasser's disease. Note the clotted blood in the trachea, a feature sometimes seen in young pigs which have died from this disease.

330 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae The two 75 kg pigs shown here died suddenly from the disease. Note the congestion. Sudden death may also occur during transport or in lairage. The incubation period can be as short as 12 hours or even less. :

330 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae The two 75 kg pigs shown here died suddenly from the disease. Note the congestion. Sudden death may also occur during transport or in lairage. The incubation period can be as short as 12 hours or even less.

331 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Infected lung. Note the visceral pleurisy, consolidation arid haemorrhage. 332 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lung from an infected pig. Note the visceral pleurisy and haemorrhage around the necrotic lesions:

331 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Infected lung. Note the visceral pleurisy, consolidation arid haemorrhage. 332 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lung from an infected pig. Note the visceral pleurisy and haemorrhage around the necrotic lesions .

333 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lungs from a 90 kg pig which had died from pleuropneumonia caused by A. (H.) pleuropneumoniae. A typical, well- demarcated pneumonic lesion can be seen in the proximal portion of the caudal lobe of the left lung. The surfaces of the lesion and the adjacent lung are covered by fibrin which in older lesions becomes organised into fibrous pleurisy. The organism can be isolated readily from fresh lesions of this condition, but may be more difficult to isolate from older lesions, and from decaying tissue or when antimicrobials have been given. :

333 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lungs from a 90 kg pig which had died from pleuropneumonia caused by A. (H.) pleuropneumoniae . A typical, well- demarcated pneumonic lesion can be seen in the proximal portion of the caudal lobe of the left lung. The surfaces of the lesion and the adjacent lung are covered by fibrin which in older lesions becomes organised into fibrous pleurisy. The organism can be isolated readily from fresh lesions of this condition, but may be more difficult to isolate from older lesions, and from decaying tissue or when antimicrobials have been given.

334 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lungs from a pig killed 24 hours after experimental inoculation with A. (H.) pleuropneumoniae. The early lesions can be clearly seen in the right lung and are marked by pale areas ofnecrosis even after such a short incubation period. :

334 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lungs from a pig killed 24 hours after experimental inoculation with A. (H.) pleuropneumoniae . The early lesions can be clearly seen in the right lung and are marked by pale areas ofnecrosis even after such a short incubation period.

335 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Section through the early lesions shown in 334 to illustrate the consolidated appearance of the affected lung. The unaffected lung is much paler. :

335 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Section through the early lesions shown in 334 to illustrate the consolidated appearance of the affected lung. The unaffected lung is much paler.

336 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Trachea from a natural case of pleuropneumonia in a 20kg pig opened to display the purulent exudate which is seen in some cases. 337 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lungs from a 90kg pig at slaughter in which the chronic lesions can be seen. They appear as bilateral multiple abscesses (arrows) and are surrounded by fibrous adhesions which often, cause tearing of the lung at evisceration and necessitate the stripping of the pleura. :

336 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Trachea from a natural case of pleuropneumonia in a 20kg pig opened to display the purulent exudate which is seen in some cases. 337 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae Lungs from a 90kg pig at slaughter in which the chronic lesions can be seen. They appear as bilateral multiple abscesses (arrows) and are surrounded by fibrous adhesions which often, cause tearing of the lung at evisceration and necessitate the stripping of the pleura.

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338 Actinobacillus (H.) pleuropneumoniae The carcase of a finishing pig split to demonstrate the extensive and severe pleurisy that occurs in pleuropneumonia and which frequently necessitates stripping of the pleura.

339 Escherichia coli infection Congested feet and nipples in a pig which died from E. coli septicaemia:

339 Escherichia coli infection Congested feet and nipples in a pig which died from E. coli septicaemia .

340 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea Piglets which die from E. coli diarrhoea are often covered in diarrhoeic faeces from littermates as in the case of this one-day-old piglet:

340 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea Piglets which die from E. coli diarrhoea are often covered in diarrhoeic faeces from littermates as in the case of this one-day-old piglet . .

341 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The three washed piglets shown here died from E. coli diarrhoea and are clearly dehydrated. Note how tightly the skin is drawn over the ribs and the prominence of the pelvic bones. :

341 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The three washed piglets shown here died from E. coli diarrhoea and are clearly dehydrated. Note how tightly the skin is drawn over the ribs and the prominence of the pelvic bones.

342 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The carcase of a two-day-old piglet which died from E. coli diarrhoea opened to demonstrate the pale, fluid-filled intestines. The hair coat is prominent because of the dehydration. :

342 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The carcase of a two-day-old piglet which died from E. coli diarrhoea opened to demonstrate the pale, fluid-filled intestines. The hair coat is prominent because of the dehydration.

343 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The carcase of a two-day-old piglet which died from E. coli diarrhoea opened to show the dehydrated appearance of the internal organs and the distended stomach filled with milk. The intestines are filled with fluid but not inflamed. :

343 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The carcase of a two-day-old piglet which died from E. coli diarrhoea opened to show the dehydrated appearance of the internal organs and the distended stomach filled with milk. The intestines are filled with fluid but not inflamed.

344 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The intestines of a two-day-old piglet which died from E. coli diarrhoea opened to show the pale, uninflamed mucosa and the pale contents seen in the uncomplicated disease. :

344 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The intestines of a two-day-old piglet which died from E. coli diarrhoea opened to show the pale, uninflamed mucosa and the pale contents seen in the uncomplicated disease.

345 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The milk clot in the stomach of affected piglets is frequently found to be laminated, as !n this picture. :

345 Escherichia coli neonatal diarrhoea The milk clot in the stomach of affected piglets is frequently found to be laminated, as !n this picture.

346 Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea This photograph is of a pig which died from post-weaning diarrhoea and illustrates the dark, dry liver, the stomach distended with .food and the fluid-filled small intestines. :

346 Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea This photograph is of a pig which died from post-weaning diarrhoea and illustrates the dark, dry liver, the stomach distended with .food and the fluid-filled small intestines.

347 Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea The carcase of a pig which died from post- weaning E. coli diarrhoea demonstrating the degree of stomach filling sometimes seen, and the congestion of the small intestine often seen in these cases. The causal strain of E. coli can be isolated readily from the intestinal lumen but is rarely present in significant numbers in cultures made from other organs of fresh carcases:

347 Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea The carcase of a pig which died from post- weaning E. coli diarrhoea demonstrating the degree of stomach filling sometimes seen, and the congestion of the small intestine often seen in these cases. The causal strain of E. coli can be isolated readily from the intestinal lumen but is rarely present in significant numbers in cultures made from other organs of fresh carcases .

348 Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea Ileums from two pigs which had died from E. coli post weaning diarrhoea opened to show the variation in degree of congestion from case to case. :

348 Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhoea Ileums from two pigs which had died from E. coli post weaning diarrhoea opened to show the variation in degree of congestion from case to case.

349 Escherichia coli bowel oedema (Oedema disease) The head of a pig which has recently died from bowel oedema. Note the puffy eyelids due to oedema and the subcutaneous oedema revealed by the incision:

349 Escherichia coli bowel oedema (Oedema disease) The head of a pig which has recently died from bowel oedema. Note the puffy eyelids due to oedema and the subcutaneous oedema revealed by the incision .

349 Escherichia coli bowel oedema (Oedema disease) The head of a pig which has recently died from bowel oedema. Note the puffy eyelids due to oedema and the subcutaneous oedema revealed by the incision:

349 Escherichia coli bowel oedema (Oedema disease) The head of a pig which has recently died from bowel oedema. Note the puffy eyelids due to oedema and the subcutaneous oedema revealed by the incision

351 Escherichia coli bowel oedema The spiral colon of the pig shown in 349. Note the severe oedema of the mesentery. :

351 Escherichia coli bowel oedema The spiral colon of the pig shown in 349 . Note the severe oedema of the mesentery.

352 Escherichia coli bowel oedema When few or no gross lesions of oedema disease are visible, the diagnosis can be confirmed by histological means. The disease results from the effects of toxin on the medial region of arterial walls which become oedematous. The oedema is most prominent around cerebro spinal arteries and gives rise to cerebro spinal angiopathy, which is illustrated in this photograph. Note the proteinaceous fluid surrounding the artery and staining pink in this H and E photomicrograph (arrow). :

352 Escherichia coli bowel oedema When few or no gross lesions of oedema disease are visible, the diagnosis can be confirmed by histological means. The disease results from the effects of toxin on the medial region of arterial walls which become oedematous. The oedema is most prominent around cerebro spinal arteries and gives rise to cerebro spinal angiopathy, which is illustrated in this photograph. Note the proteinaceous fluid surrounding the artery and staining pink in this H and E photomicrograph (arrow).

353 Escherichia coli bowel oedema A photomicrograph of cerebro spinal angiopathy stained to demonstrate disruption of the elastin layers of the arterial media (stained blue). :

353 Escherichia coli bowel oedema A photomicrograph of cerebro spinal angiopathy stained to demonstrate disruption of the elastin layers of the arterial media (stained blue).

354 Escherichia coli mastitis Acute gangrenous mastitis resulting in death. Subacute forms are more common. :

354 Escherichia coli mastitis Acute gangrenous mastitis resulting in death. Subacute forms are more common.

355 Escherichia coli mastitis An affected sow with two affected glands. The remainder of the udder is normal. :

355 Escherichia coli mastitis An affected sow with two affected glands. The remainder of the udder is normal.

356 Escherichia coli mastitis The mammary glands have been sectioned to demonstrate the way in which only one gland is affected. The affected half is uniformly mottled and reddened, while the other half is normal. :

356 Escherichia coli mastitis The mammary glands have been sectioned to demonstrate the way in which only one gland is affected. The affected half is uniformly mottled and reddened, while the other half is normal.

357 Escherichia coli mastitis A section of an udder with gangrenous mastitis. Note the oedema, the enlarged lymph nodes (arrows) and the affected gland alongside a normal gland containing milk. :

357 Escherichia coli mastitis A section of an udder with gangrenous mastitis. Note the oedema, the enlarged lymph nodes (arrows) and the affected gland alongside a normal gland containing milk.

358 Escherichia coli mastitis An udder ectioned to show the damage caused by E. coli mastitis in a previous lactation. :

358 Escherichia coli mastitis An udder ectioned to show the damage caused by E. coli mastitis in a previous lactation.

359 Escherichia coli mastitis A normal mammary gland in section. Yellow and red dyes have been injected into the teat canals to show that each mamma consists of two distinct subunits. :

359 Escherichia coli mastitis A normal mammary gland in section. Yellow and red dyes have been injected into the teat canals to show that each mamma consists of two distinct subunits.

360 Escherichia coli cystitis The bladder from a five-year-old sow in the third month of pregnancy. Note the intensely reddened mucosa and the pools of pus resulting from acute coliform cystitis. :

360 Escherichia coli cystitis The bladder from a five-year-old sow in the third month of pregnancy. Note the intensely reddened mucosa and the pools of pus resulting from acute coliform cystitis.

361 Escherichia coli pyelonephrits is A kidney from the five-year-old sow with cystitis. There is an acute coliform pyelonephritis. Note the mottled ,surface of the kidney:

361 Escherichia coli pyelonephrits is A kidney from the five-year-old sow with cystitis. There is an acute coliform pyelonephritis. Note the mottled ,surface of the kidney .

362 Escherichia coli pyelonephritis A kidney of a four-year-old sow opened to demonstrate the changes in pyelonephritis. Note the pus in the renal pelvis (indicated by the black strip ). :

362 Escherichia coli pyelonephritis A kidney of a four-year-old sow opened to demonstrate the changes in pyelonephritis. Note the pus in the renal pelvis (indicated by the black strip ). .

363 Escherichia coli metritis The uterus from a three-year-old sow which died from acute coliform metritis. Note the large quantities of yellow pus in the lumen. :

363 Escherichia coli metritis The uterus from a three-year-old sow which died from acute coliform metritis. Note the large quantities of yellow pus in the lumen.

364 Klebsiella mastitis Klebsiella mastitis resembles the acute form of E. coli mastitis clinically. Affected sows may die from systemic consequences. A severely affected sow is shown in this photograph. Note the purple discolouration of the flanks and the swelling of the mammae. :

364 Klebsiella mastitis Klebsiella mastitis resembles the acute form of E. coli mastitis clinically. Affected sows may die from systemic consequences. A severely affected sow is shown in this photograph. Note the purple discolouration of the flanks and the swelling of the mammae.

365 Klebsiella mastitis A sow with mastitis caused by Klebsiella sp. Note the purple discolouration and swelling of the mammae. :

365 Klebsiella mastitis A sow with mastitis caused by Klebsiella sp. Note the purple discolouration and swelling of the mammae.

366 Leptospirosis Skin petechiation at the height of the septicaemic phase in L. canicola infection. :

366 Leptospirosis Skin petechiation at the height of the septicaemic phase in L. canicola infection.

367 Leptospirosis L. canicola infection. Haemorrhages may be seen on the sclera of the eye.:

367 Leptospirosis L. canicola infection. Haemorrhages may be seen on the sclera of the eye.

368 Leptospirosis Piglet from a late abortion caused by L. pomona. Note the skin haemorrhages. The thimbles on the claws are intact indicating that the piglet was born dead. :

368 Leptospirosis Piglet from a late abortion caused by L. pomona . Note the skin haemorrhages. The thimbles on the claws are intact indicating that the piglet was born dead.

369 Leptospirosis L. pomona-infected foetus. The thoracic and abdominal cavities have been exposed. Note necrotic lesions in the liver. :

369 Leptospirosis L. pomona -infected foetus. The thoracic and abdominal cavities have been exposed. Note necrotic lesions in the liver.

370 Leptospirosis L. pomona infection. Close- up of liver lesions. These are present in only a small proportion (less than 10 percent) of cases but are pathognomonic. :

370 Leptospirosis L. pomona infection. Close- up of liver lesions. These are present in only a small proportion (less than 10 percent) of cases but are pathognomonic.

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