Bacterial-Viral Disease-Part2

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371 Leptospirosis L. pomona infection. Note the haemorrhages in the lungs of this aborted foetus. :

371 Leptospirosis L. pomona infection. Note the haemorrhages in the lungs of this aborted foetus.

372 Leptospirosis A foetus aborted as a result of L. canjcola infection. Both freshly aborted haemorrhagic foetuses, and those resembling that pictured here, may be found. In fresh material the organism may be demonstrated in foetal lung or liver by immunofluorescence or culture. In immunologically competent foetuses or stillborn piglets which have experienced intrauterine leptospiral infection, antibody may be demonstrated in pericardial, pleural and peritoneal fluid. :

372 Leptospirosis A foetus aborted as a result of L. canjcola infection. Both freshly aborted haemorrhagic foetuses, and those resembling that pictured here, may be found. In fresh material the organism may be demonstrated in foetal lung or liver by immunofluorescence or culture. In immunologically competent foetuses or stillborn piglets which have experienced intrauterine leptospiral infection, antibody may be demonstrated in pericardial, pleural and peritoneal fluid.

373 Leptospirosis Haemorrhages and petechiae occur throughout the body in pigs which have died or been killed in the acute phase of the disease. The focal haemorrhages in this kidney from a pig infected with L. canicola are typical. :

373 Leptospirosis Haemorrhages and petechiae occur throughout the body in pigs which have died or been killed in the acute phase of the disease. The focal haemorrhages in this kidney from a pig infected with L. canicola are typical.

374 Leptospirosis A kidney from a chronic renal carrier of L. canicola in which small white foci of interstitial nephritis can be seen (arrows). This type of lesion is commonly found incidentally at slaughter. Such lesions are indicative of leptospiral infection and care shpuld be taken by slaughterhouse workers when handling these cases. This also applies to L. pomona infection. :

374 Leptospirosis A kidney from a chronic renal carrier of L. canicola in which small white foci of interstitial nephritis can be seen (arrows). This type of lesion is commonly found incidentally at slaughter. Such lesions are indicative of leptospiral infection and care shpuld be taken by slaughterhouse workers when handling these cases. This also applies to L. pomona infection.

375 Pasteurella haemolytica The lungs shown here are from a seven-day-old piglet which died from P. haemolytica septicaemia. Type T organisms were recovered. Petechiae and haemorrhages were present on many organs, such as the kidney shown in 376. :

375 Pasteurella haemolytica The lungs shown here are from a seven-day-old piglet which died from P. haemolytica septicaemia. Type T organisms were recovered. Petechiae and haemorrhages were present on many organs, such as the kidney shown in 376 .

376 Pasteurella haemolytica A kidney from a seven-day-old piglet which died from P. haemolytica septicaemia. Note the petechiae. :

376 Pasteurella haemolytica A kidney from a seven-day-old piglet which died from P. haemolytica septicaemia. Note the petechiae.

377 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia Lungs from a 10-week-old pig which died from Pasteurella pneumonia. All lobes in this ventral view are affected.:

377 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia Lungs from a 10-week-old pig which died from Pasteurella pneumonia. All lobes in this ventral view are affected.

378 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia Dorsal surface of the left lung featured in 377 demonstrating the difference between a normal lung (arrow) and the lesions of pasteurellosis. :

378 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia Dorsal surface of the left lung featured in 377 demonstrating the difference between a normal lung (arrow) and the lesions of pasteurellosis.

379 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia Cross- section through the pasteurellosis lesion shown in 378. Note the complete consolidation of the lung and its pale colour, which is due to accumulations of fibrin and inflammatory cells in the alveoli. P. multocjda of types A and sometimes D can be isolated in pure culture. :

379 Pasteurella multocida pneumonia Cross- section through the pasteurellosis lesion shown in 378 . Note the complete consolidation of the lung and its pale colour, which is due to accumulations of fibrin and inflammatory cells in the alveoli. P. multocjda of types A and sometimes D can be isolated in pure culture.

380 Toxin positive Pasteurella multocida type D Infection with this organism in neonatal non- mmune piglets can result in the development of atrophic rhinitis when the toxin produced destroys the developing conchal bones of the nose. Inflammation causes bloody and serous nasal discharges and paroxysmal sneezing. Later in life atrophy and deviation of the snout occur. This picture shows two pigs showing snout changes caused by P. multocida type D. :

380 Toxin positive Pasteurella multocida type D Infection with this organism in neonatal non- mmune piglets can result in the development of atrophic rhinitis when the toxin produced destroys the developing conchal bones of the nose. Inflammation causes bloody and serous nasal discharges and paroxysmal sneezing. Later in life atrophy and deviation of the snout occur. This picture shows two pigs showing snout changes caused by P. multocida type D.

381 Toxin positive Pasteurella multocjda type D Cross-section of the snout of a 10-week-old pig with atrophic rhinitis. Note the displaced septum and the atrophic ventral conchae. These lesions can be scored to give a measurement of the severity of the disease in a herd. :

381 Toxin positive Pasteurella multocjda type D Cross-section of the snout of a 10-week-old pig with atrophic rhinitis. Note the displaced septum and the atrophic ventral conchae. These lesions can be scored to give a measurement of the severity of the disease in a herd.

382 Streptococcus suis type I The piglet shown here was two weeks old and had such severe streptococcal arthritis it was unable to stand. :

382 Streptococcus suis type I The piglet shown here was two weeks old and had such severe streptococcal arthritis it was unable to stand.

383 Streptococcus suis type II A piglet in the early stages of the disease. Note the slight tilting of the head. :

383 Streptococcus suis type II A piglet in the early stages of the disease. Note the slight tilting of the head.

384 Streptococcus suis type II A pig with meningitis. Affected pigs may remain in this state even after apparently successful antimicrobial treatment and recover only gradually. :

384 Streptococcus suis type II A pig with meningitis. Affected pigs may remain in this state even after apparently successful antimicrobial treatment and recover only gradually.

385 Streptococcus suis type II Congestion of the lymph nodes is common in animals which have died from acute S. sujs type II infection. Here, an affected pig has been dissected to demonstrate the submandibular lymph nodes (arrow). :

385 Streptococcus suis type II Congestion of the lymph nodes is common in animals which have died from acute S. sujs type II infection. Here, an affected pig has been dissected to demonstrate the submandibular lymph nodes (arrow).

386 Streptococcus suis type II The lungs from a 20kg weaner with s. suis type II septicaemia. Note the oedema and multiple petechial haemorrhages. A localised abscess is also present on the right lung. No A. (H.) pleuropneumoniae was present in the herd. :

386 Streptococcus suis type II The lungs from a 20kg weaner with s. suis type II septicaemia. Note the oedema and multiple petechial haemorrhages. A localised abscess is also present on the right lung. No A. (H.) pleuropneumoniae was present in the herd.

387 Streptococcus suis type II The brain may be congested in cases of streptococcal meningitis and at times accumulations of pus may be seen on the surface. On other occasions :

387 Streptococcus suis type II The brain may be congested in cases of streptococcal meningitis and at times accumulations of pus may be seen on the surface. On other occasions

388 Streptococcus suis type II Live affected weaner. Note opisthotonus and paddling movements of front legs. These movements frequently lead to skin abrasions and bony prominences. :

388 Streptococcus suis type II Live affected weaner. Note opisthotonus and paddling movements of front legs. These movements frequently lead to skin abrasions and bony prominences.

389 Salmonella cholerasuis Septicaemic form of S. choleraesuis infection. Note the cyanosis of the extremities and faecal soiling below anus. :

389 Salmonella cholerasuis Septicaemic form of S. choleraesuis infection. Note the cyanosis of the extremities and faecal soiling below anus.

390 Salmonella choleraesuis The carcase of the pig shown in 389 opened to demonstrate the enlarged, friable, engorged spleen and fevered carcase. :

390 Salmonella choleraesuis The carcase of the pig shown in 389 opened to demonstrate the enlarged, friable, engorged spleen and fevered carcase.

391 Salmonella choleraesuis The stomach from a case of salmonellosis showing haemorrhages in the gastric mucosa and at the pylorus. :

391 Salmonella choleraesuis The stomach from a case of salmonellosis showing haemorrhages in the gastric mucosa and at the pylorus.

392 Salmonella choleraesuis Lungs from a pig which died from S. choleraesuis septicaemia. Note the congestion. :

392 Salmonella choleraesuis Lungs from a pig which died from S. choleraesuis septicaemia. Note the congestion.

393 Salmonella typhimurium An acute case with intestinal haemorrhage resulting in death. :

393 Salmonella typhimurium An acute case with intestinal haemorrhage resulting in death.

394 Exudative epidermitis An affected litter of piglets with both severely diseased animals and normal litter mates. :

394 Exudative epidermitis An affected litter of piglets with both severely diseased animals and normal litter mates.

395 Exudative epidermitis Early disease with marked inflammation of skin. :

395 Exudative epidermitis Early disease with marked inflammation of skin.

396 Exudative epidermitis Lesions of generalised acute exudative epidermitis. Note the moist appearance of the axillae and the colour of the skin. :

396 Exudative epidermitis Lesions of generalised acute exudative epidermitis. Note the moist appearance of the axillae and the colour of the skin.

397 Exudative epidermitis A severely affected weaner seven days after the onset of the condition. :

397 Exudative epidermitis A severely affected weaner seven days after the onset of the condition.

398 Exudative epidermitis A subacute case with multifocallesions. :

398 Exudative epidermitis A subacute case with multifocallesions.

399 Exudative epidermitis Post-mortem lesions of exudative epidermitis are mainly restricted to the skin and draining lymph nodes which are thickened or enlarged. Other organs are affected by dehydration and changes are most prominent in the kidney where urate crystals are deposited in the medulla, as shown in this photograph (see arrow). :

399 Exudative epidermitis Post-mortem lesions of exudative epidermitis are mainly restricted to the skin and draining lymph nodes which are thickened or enlarged. Other organs are affected by dehydration and changes are most prominent in the kidney where urate crystals are deposited in the medulla, as shown in this photograph (see arrow).

400 Exudative epidermitis Foot lesions. Note the lesions on the bulbs of the heels. :

400 Exudative epidermitis Foot lesions. Note the lesions on the bulbs of the heels.

401 Exudative epidermitis Mouth lesions in an affected piglet. :

401 Exudative epidermitis Mouth lesions in an affected piglet.

402 Exudative epiderrnitis Early localised lesions without ulceration.:

402 Exudative epiderrnitis Early localised lesions without ulceration.

403 Exudative epidermitis Widespread multifocal pyoderma with ulceration. :

403 Exudative epidermitis Widespread multifocal pyoderma with ulceration.

404 Exudative epidermitis Close-up of extensive acute lesions of multifocal pyoderma. :

404 Exudative epidermitis Close-up of extensive acute lesions of multifocal pyoderma.

405 Lesions of necrotic stomatitis. Necrotic material is present on the tongue (arrow). Note the poor condition of the piglet. :

405 Lesions of necrotic stomatitis. Necrotic material is present on the tongue (arrow). Note the poor condition of the piglet.

406 Fusobacterium necropborum infection Liver showing multiple abscesses. Smears made from these necrotic areas usually contain large numbers of the long, thin, beaded Gram- negative rods. :

406 Fusobacterium necropborum infection Liver showing multiple abscesses. Smears made from these necrotic areas usually contain large numbers of the long, thin, beaded Gram- negative rods.

407 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) The hindquarters of a pig with classic swine dysentery. Note the trickle of blood-stained diarrhoea:

407 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) The hindquarters of a pig with classic swine dysentery. Note the trickle of blood-stained diarrhoea .

408 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) Blood-stained mucoid faeces from a case of swine dysentery. T. hyodysent- eriae may be seen as a Gram-negative spirochaete in smears made from the faeces and isolated under anaerobic conditions. :

408 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) Blood-stained mucoid faeces from a case of swine dysentery. T. hyodysent- eriae may be seen as a Gram-negative spirochaete in smears made from the faeces and isolated under anaerobic conditions.

409 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) Pigs which die from swine dysentery are usually dehydrated and have intestinal lesions restricted to the large intestine. The other organs are usually unaffected although there may be congestion of the small intestine. :

409 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) Pigs which die from swine dysentery are usually dehydrated and have intestinal lesions restricted to the large intestine. The other organs are usually unaffected although there may be congestion of the small intestine.

410 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) A portion of large intestine opened to show the mucoid nature of the contents. There is thickening of the large intestinal mucosa. :

410 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) A portion of large intestine opened to show the mucoid nature of the contents. There is thickening of the large intestinal mucosa. .

411 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) Washed colonic mucosa from a clinically normal recovered case of swine dysentery, showing a residual lesion of the disease (arrow).:

411 Treponema hyodysenteriae infection (swine dysentery) Washed colonic mucosa from a clinically normal recovered case of swine dysentery, showing a residual lesion of the disease (arrow).

412 Spirochaetal diarrhoea The colon of a pig killed 11 days after infection with a non-T. hyodysenteriae spirochaete showing the dilatation.of the organ but little inflammation. :

412 Spirochaetal diarrhoea The colon of a pig killed 11 days after infection with a non- T. hyodysenteriae spirochaete showing the dilatation.of the organ but little inflammation.

413 Spirochaetal diarrhoea Colonic mucosa washed to show the inflamed surface resulting from the spirochaetal infection. :

413 Spirochaetal diarrhoea Colonic mucosa washed to show the inflamed surface resulting from the spirochaetal infection.

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415 Spirochaetal diarrhoea A photo- micrograph of the colonic mucosa of a case of spirochaetal diarrhoea showing dilated crypts and an accumulation of Balantidium coli on the surface (arrow).

416 Tuberculosis A pig's head split in the course of carcase preparation is shown above. The lymph nodes have been exposed and cut to display the calcified granulomatous lesions of avian tuberculosis (arrow).:

416 Tuberculosis A pig's head split in the course of carcase preparation is shown above. The lymph nodes have been exposed and cut to display the calcified granulomatous lesions of avian tuberculosis (arrow).

417 Thberculosis A submandibular lymph node cut to demonstrate granulomas caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare (arrows). :

417 Thberculosis A submandibular lymph node cut to demonstrate granulomas caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare (arrows).

418 Tuberculosis Spleen from a pig with M. bovis infection. The granulomas appear as masses in the spleen or as white nodules. Their spherical nature is demonstrated in the two granulomas exposed by the cut. :

418 Tuberculosis Spleen from a pig with M. bovis infection. The granulomas appear as masses in the spleen or as white nodules. Their spherical nature is demonstrated in the two granulomas exposed by the cut.

419 Tuberculosis M. bovis causes systemic infection which may be seen as miliary granulomas throughout the liver and other organs. The white foci on the liver shown here are small (1-5 mm) tubercular granulomas. :

419 Tuberculosis M. bovis causes systemic infection which may be seen as miliary granulomas throughout the liver and other organs. The white foci on the liver shown here are small (1-5 mm) tubercular granulomas.

420 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) An abscess visible from the exterior is shown on the ventral abdomen of this two-week-old piglet. :

420 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) An abscess visible from the exterior is shown on the ventral abdomen of this two-week-old piglet.

421 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) A two-week-old piglet opened to show the abscess on the lateral or peritoneal surface (arrow). :

421 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) A two-week-old piglet opened to show the abscess on the lateral or peritoneal surface (arrow).

422 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) The piglet shown in 421. The abscess has been excised to expose the thick creamy pus. :

422 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) The piglet shown in 421 . The abscess has been excised to expose the thick creamy pus.

423 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) A two-week-old piglet with both navel ill and joint ill. Both knee and hock joints are affected. :

423 Septic omphalophlebitis (Navel Ill) A two-week-old piglet with both navel ill and joint ill. Both knee and hock joints are affected.

424 Chlamydia psittaci infection Chlamydial infections are rarely diagnosed, but the organism has been isolated from the uterus, vagina, arthritic joints, demonstrated in the intestinal mucosa and isolated from the respiratory tract. Respiratory infection is perhaps the most easily-recognised form of the disease because of1he distribution of the lung lesions. :

424 Chlamydia psittaci infection Chlamydial infections are rarely diagnosed, but the organism has been isolated from the uterus, vagina, arthritic joints, demonstrated in the intestinal mucosa and isolated from the respiratory tract. Respiratory infection is perhaps the most easily-recognised form of the disease because of1he distribution of the lung lesions.

425 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Lungs from a field case of Enzootic Pneumonia uncompli- cated by secondary bacterial infection. Note the typical distribution of the lesions in the cranial, cardiac and anteroventral caudal lobes. :

425 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Lungs from a field case of Enzootic Pneumonia uncompli- cated by secondary bacterial infection. Note the typical distribution of the lesions in the cranial, cardiac and anteroventral caudal lobes.

426 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Enzootic Pneumonia) Histological section through a lesion 31/2 months after experimental infection of a SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) pig with a pure culture of M. hyopneumoniae "J" strain. Note the massive cellular accumulations (stained purple). :

426 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Enzootic Pneumonia) Histological section through a lesion 31/2 months after experimental infection of a SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) pig with a pure culture of M. hyopneumoniae "J" strain. Note the massive cellular accumulations (stained purple).

427 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection (Enzootic Pneumonia) A histological section through an early lesion of Enzootic Pneumonia to demonstrate the typical peribronchial distribution of the lesions, 22 days after experimental infection with M. hyo- pneumoniae “J" strain. :

427 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection (Enzootic Pneumonia) A histological section through an early lesion of Enzootic Pneumonia to demonstrate the typical peribronchial distribution of the lesions, 22 days after experimental infection with M. hyo- pneumoniae “J" strain.

428 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae A typical case of an infected first litter gilt. There is bilateral infection of both stifle and hock joints. Note the typical posture of an affected animal. :

428 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae A typical case of an infected first litter gilt. There is bilateral infection of both stifle and hock joints. Note the typical posture of an affected animal.

429 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Mildly swollen hock joint (arrow ) of the left hind leg of a lame maiden gilt. :

429 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae Mildly swollen hock joint (arrow ) of the left hind leg of a lame maiden gilt.

430 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae A joint opened to show the marked villous hypertrophy of the synovial membrane (arrow). :

430 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae A joint opened to show the marked villous hypertrophy of the synovial membrane (arrow).

431 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae A stifle joint showing synovitis and pannus formation. :

431 Mycoplasma hyosynoviae A stifle joint showing synovitis and pannus formation.

432 ' Actinomycosis' of the udder Large granulomatous areas in the udder which ulcerate to discharge yellowish pus are often attributed to 'actinomycosis'. Investigation often reveals the presence of bacteria but Actinomyces spp. are rarely isolated. The affected mammary gland shown here has had the skin removed to show the large granulomas (arrows). :

432 ' Actinomycosis' of the udder Large granulomatous areas in the udder which ulcerate to discharge yellowish pus are often attributed to 'actinomycosis'. Investigation often reveals the presence of bacteria but Actinomyces spp . are rarely isolated. The affected mammary gland shown here has had the skin removed to show the large granulomas (arrows).

433 Atrophic Rhinitis Atrophic Rhinitis is an infectious disease of young actively growing pigs. After sneezing and other signs of upper respiratory tract infection, shortening and, sometimes, twisting of the snout occurs by 6-8 weeks of age. Section of the snout between first and second premolars allows the extent of the lesions to be seen clearly. These lesions can be subjectively graded on a scale of 0-5 (see 381). This photograph shows the snouts from three 20kg weaners, sectioned to show varying degrees of atrophy. :

433 Atrophic Rhinitis Atrophic Rhinitis is an infectious disease of young actively growing pigs. After sneezing and other signs of upper respiratory tract infection, shortening and, sometimes, twisting of the snout occurs by 6-8 weeks of age. Section of the snout between first and second premolars allows the extent of the lesions to be seen clearly. These lesions can be subjectively graded on a scale of 0-5 ( see 381 ). This photograph shows the snouts from three 20kg weaners, sectioned to show varying degrees of atrophy.

434 Staphylococcal infection Staphylococcal acne in the offspring ofhysterectomy-derived sows. :

434 Staphylococcal infection Staphylococcal acne in the offspring ofhysterectomy-derived sows.

435 Staphylococcal infection Note the microabscesses on the udder of a recently- farrowed sow. Staphylococci were cultured (see also 160). :

435 Staphylococcal infection Note the microabscesses on the udder of a recently- farrowed sow. Staphylococci were cultured ( see also 160 ).

436 Porcine parvovirus infection In thisphotograph, a series of stillborn piglets is seen. The smallest piglets died first and the largest last; most of the mummified piglets died prior to 70 days gestation and the pale piglets died prior to parturition or during it. :

436 Porcine parvovirus infection In thisphotograph, a series of stillborn piglets is seen. The smallest piglets died first and the largest last; most of the mummified piglets died prior to 70 days gestation and the pale piglets died prior to parturition or during it.

437 Teschen Disease A pig with Teschen disease. Note the position of the animal, with head back, paddling movements of the forelimbs and paresis of the hind limbs. :

437 Teschen Disease A pig with Teschen disease. Note the position of the animal, with head back, paddling movements of the forelimbs and paresis of the hind limbs.

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438 Polioencephalomyelitis The cerebellum of a pig which died from Talfan disease. There is loss of neurones and accumulations of microglial cells may be seen around some degenerating cells (arrow).

439 Encephalomyocarditis Sudden death with very severe cyanosis of the skin and the extremities. The disease is caused by encephalomyocarditis virus, a member of the cardiovirus group of enteroviruses. Viral antibodies have been detected in the UK but clinical disease has never been diagnosed. :

439 Encephalomyocarditis Sudden death with very severe cyanosis of the skin and the extremities. The disease is caused by encephalomyocarditis virus, a member of the cardiovirus group of enteroviruses. Viral antibodies have been detected in the UK but clinical disease has never been diagnosed.

440 Encephalomyocarditis Note severe cyanosis of extremities. :

440 Encephalomyocarditis Note severe cyanosis of extremities.

441 Encephalomyocarditis Note the multiple necrotic lesions in the myocardium. :

441 Encephalomyocarditis Note the multiple necrotic lesions in the myocardium.

442 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Faeces in a pen containing a sow and litter with TGE. Note the greyish green colour and watery texture of most of the faeces and the soft white motion full of undigested milk fat passed by a recovering piglet. :

442 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Faeces in a pen containing a sow and litter with TGE. Note the greyish green colour and watery texture of most of the faeces and the soft white motion full of undigested milk fat passed by a recovering piglet.

443 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Dying three-day-old piglets. Note the dehydration. :

443 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Dying three-day-old piglets. Note the dehydration.

444 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Affected and non-affected three-day-old piglets. Note the good condition of the piglets on the right. :

444 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Affected and non-affected three-day-old piglets. Note the good condition of the piglets on the right.

445 Transmissible Gastroenteritis An affected sow. Note the faecal staining of the perineum. :

445 Transmissible Gastroenteritis An affected sow. Note the faecal staining of the perineum.

446 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Carcase of a four-day-old piglet opened to show the small intestines distended with fluid and milk clot. :

446 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Carcase of a four-day-old piglet opened to show the small intestines distended with fluid and milk clot.

447 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Frozen section of the small intestine of a piglet with TGE. It has been stained with fluorescent antibody to the virus, the test used widely to confirm infection. Infected cells fluoresce. :

447 Transmissible Gastroenteritis Frozen section of the small intestine of a piglet with TGE. It has been stained with fluorescent antibody to the virus, the test used widely to confirm infection. Infected cells fluoresce.

448 Epidemic Diarrhoea Type II Stomach and intestines from a piglet with Epidemic Diarrhoea. Note the congested gastric mucosa (arrow) and the distended, fluid-filled small intestine. :

448 Epidemic Diarrhoea Type II Stomach and intestines from a piglet with Epidemic Diarrhoea. Note the congested gastric mucosa (arrow) and the distended, fluid-filled small intestine.

449 Rotavirus infection Histological section of affected intestinal mucosa from a two-week-old piglet affected by rotaviral diarrhoea. Note the short villi and the loss of mature absorptive cells from the villous tips. The villi form a marked contrast with the normal villi shown in 450. :

449 Rotavirus infection Histological section of affected intestinal mucosa from a two-week-old piglet affected by rotaviral diarrhoea. Note the short villi and the loss of mature absorptive cells from the villous tips. The villi form a marked contrast with the normal villi shown in 450 .

450 Normal Intestinal Mucosa Histological section of villi from a normal pig of the same age as the one with rotavirus infection shown in 449. Note the long thin villi. :

450 Normal Intestinal Mucosa Histological section of villi from a normal pig of the same age as the one with rotavirus infection shown in 449 . Note the long thin villi.

451 Inclusion Body Rhinitis A longitudinal section of the snout of a 12-day-old piglet illustrating the acute congestion of the conchal epithelium found in early cases of IBR. :

451 Inclusion Body Rhinitis A longitudinal section of the snout of a 12-day-old piglet illustrating the acute congestion of the conchal epithelium found in early cases of IBR.

452 Inclusion Body Rhinitis Histological section of nasal mucosa showing the characteristic intranuclear bodies in the epithelial cells of the mucosal glands. Affected cells are markedly enlarged (when compared with those of the unaffected glandular tissue nearby). Note the inflammatory cells surrounding the affected gland. :

452 Inclusion Body Rhinitis Histological section of nasal mucosa showing the characteristic intranuclear bodies in the epithelial cells of the mucosal glands. Affected cells are markedly enlarged (when compared with those of the unaffected glandular tissue nearby). Note the inflammatory cells surrounding the affected gland.

453 Aujeszky's Disease Piglet showing typical nervous signs just before its death. Affected piglets are often pyrexic (to 41.5°C, 107°F) and die in convulsions within 12 hours of the development of clinical signs. Note the outstretched forelimbs. :

453 Aujeszky's Disease Piglet showing typical nervous signs just before its death. Affected piglets are often pyrexic (to 41.5°C, 107°F) and die in convulsions within 12 hours of the development of clinical signs. Note the outstretched forelimbs.

454 Aujeszky's Disease Dead piglets collected during an outbreak of Aujeszky's Disease in a 270 sow herd. Note the numbers involved and their uniformly small size. Theyare accompanied by the farm cat. The death of other species often draws attention to the presence of the disease on a pig farm, particularly as the clinical signs in these other species may be dramatic:

454 Aujeszky's Disease Dead piglets collected during an outbreak of Aujeszky's Disease in a 270 sow herd. Note the numbers involved and their uniformly small size. Theyare accompanied by the farm cat. The death of other species often draws attention to the presence of the disease on a pig farm, particularly as the clinical signs in these other species may be dramatic .

455 Aujeszky's Disease The head of a piglet showing the skin lesions sometimes seen on affected piglets. :

455 Aujeszky's Disease The head of a piglet showing the skin lesions sometimes seen on affected piglets.

456 Aujeszky's Disease The head of a piglet illustrating lesions present on the snout and palate (arrows). :

456 Aujeszky's Disease The head of a piglet illustrating lesions present on the snout and palate (arrows).

457 Aujeszky's Disease Post mortem picture of a piglet demonstrating the presence of a necrotic, diphtheritic membrane on the tonsils (arrow). This is a common lesion. :

457 Aujeszky's Disease Post mortem picture of a piglet demonstrating the presence of a necrotic, diphtheritic membrane on the tonsils (arrow). This is a common lesion.

458 Aujeszky's Disease clircase opened to demonstrate necrotic lesions in the wall of the small intestine. These may also be seen in the liver. :

458 Aujeszky's Disease clircase opened to demonstrate necrotic lesions in the wall of the small intestine. These may also be seen in the liver.

459 Aujeszky's Disease A dog salivating at the mouth. This animal died within 24 hours. Confirmation of Aujeszky's Disease was not made but the animal was known to have eaten piglets which had died on a farm where Aujeszky's Disease was active. The disease is dramatic and could be confused with rabies. :

459 Aujeszky's Disease A dog salivating at the mouth. This animal died within 24 hours. Confirmation of Aujeszky's Disease was not made but the animal was known to have eaten piglets which had died on a farm where Aujeszky's Disease was active. The disease is dramatic and could be confused with rabies.

460 Aujeszky's Disease A six-month-old Friesian calf with Aujeszky's Disease following airspace contact with affected pigs. Affected cattle often develop severe pruritis and self-inflicted injuries are common. This calf shows such lesions over the ribs ( arrow). :

460 Aujeszky's Disease A six-month-old Friesian calf with Aujeszky's Disease following airspace contact with affected pigs. Affected cattle often develop severe pruritis and self-inflicted injuries are common. This calf shows such lesions over the ribs ( arrow).

461 Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera) Haemorrhagic skin lesions in acute Swine Fever. :

461 Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera) Haemorrhagic skin lesions in acute Swine Fever.

462 Swine Fever Marked haemorrhagic diathesis into the skin in the acute form of the disease. :

462 Swine Fever Marked haemorrhagic diathesis into the skin in the acute form of the disease.

463 Swine Fever Chronic skin lesion (right). Note the necrotic centre ofthe)esion which will eventually be sloughed. The intensely congested tips of the ears and the tail may all be lost at this stage of the disease. :

463 Swine Fever Chronic skin lesion (right). Note the necrotic centre ofthe)esion which will eventually be sloughed. The intensely congested tips of the ears and the tail may all be lost at this stage of the disease.

464 Swine Fever Haemorrhage in the preputial sac. :

464 Swine Fever Haemorrhage in the preputial sac.

465 Swine Fever Haemorrhages and petechiation in the musculature. :

465 Swine Fever Haemorrhages and petechiation in the musculature.

466 Swine Fever Bladder from a case of acute Swine Fever. Note the areas of haemorrhage with dark, infarcted centres. :

466 Swine Fever Bladder from a case of acute Swine Fever. Note the areas of haemorrhage with dark, infarcted centres.

467 Swine Fever Tonsils from a case of acute Swine Fever. Note the congestion. :

467 Swine Fever Tonsils from a case of acute Swine Fever. Note the congestion.

468 Swine Fever Haemorrhages on the epiglottis which are strongly suggestive of Swine Fever:

468 Swine Fever Haemorrhages on the epiglottis which are strongly suggestive of Swine Fever .

469 Swine Fever Lung from a case of Swine Fever. Note the haemorrhages. These may not appear in every case and may be complicated by the presence of other diseases. :

469 Swine Fever Lung from a case of Swine Fever. Note the haemorrhages. These may not appear in every case and may be complicated by the presence of other diseases.

470 Swine Fever The abdominal viscera in an acute case. :

470 Swine Fever The abdominal viscera in an acute case.

471 Swine Fever Mesenteric lymph nodes sectioned to show the typical subcapsular haemorrhages and their intensity. :

471 Swine Fever Mesenteric lymph nodes sectioned to show the typical subcapsular haemorrhages and their intensity.

472 Swine Fever Infarction of the spleen occurs frequently in Swine Fever but rarely occurs in other diseases. Multiple infarcts may be present, usually along the margin as in this picture. :

472 Swine Fever Infarction of the spleen occurs frequently in Swine Fever but rarely occurs in other diseases. Multiple infarcts may be present, usually along the margin as in this picture.

473 Swine Fever Lesions in the intestines may appear as prominent vessels in the serosal surface of the small intestine or as depressed circular areas in the serosal surface of the large intestine. These circular intestinal lesions develop into 'button ulcers' in chronic cases. They result from areas of infarction which become colonised by gut bacteria. These are early lesions in the large intestine of a pig with acute Swine Fever. Note their intensely haem- orrhagic appearance. :

473 Swine Fever Lesions in the intestines may appear as prominent vessels in the serosal surface of the small intestine or as depressed circular areas in the serosal surface of the large intestine. These circular intestinal lesions develop into 'button ulcers' in chronic cases. They result from areas of infarction which become colonised by gut bacteria. These are early lesions in the large intestine of a pig with acute Swine Fever. Note their intensely haem- orrhagic appearance.

474 Swine Fever Large intestinal mucosa from a case of chronic Swine Fever. Note the well- defined circular areas of necrosis or 'button ulcers' which are pathognomonic of the disease. :

474 Swine Fever Large intestinal mucosa from a case of chronic Swine Fever. Note the well- defined circular areas of necrosis or 'button ulcers' which are pathognomonic of the disease.

475 Swine Fever Surface of the kidney of an acute case of Swine Fever. The capsule of the kidney has been stripped to expose the petechiated surface. This 'turkey egg' kidney is present in many septicaemic conditions and is often present in this disease. When found, Swine Fever should be suspected. :

475 Swine Fever Surface of the kidney of an acute case of Swine Fever. The capsule of the kidney has been stripped to expose the petechiated surface. This 'turkey egg' kidney is present in many septicaemic conditions and is often present in this disease. When found, Swine Fever should be suspected.

476 Swine Fever Haemorrhages in the pelvis of the kidney strongly suggestive of the disease. :

476 Swine Fever Haemorrhages in the pelvis of the kidney strongly suggestive of the disease.

477 Swine Fever The bladder of an acute case of Swine Fever opened to show the petech- iation of the cystic mucosa. :

477 Swine Fever The bladder of an acute case of Swine Fever opened to show the petech- iation of the cystic mucosa.

478 African Swine Fever Larynx from a case of African Swine Fever. There is oedema and congestion but no petechiae. :

478 African Swine Fever Larynx from a case of African Swine Fever. There is oedema and congestion but no petechiae. .

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479 African Swine Fever Haemorrhages in the lung.

480 African Swine Fever Auricle of the heart with haemorrhages. There are no haemorrhages on the ventricular muscle in this case. :

480 African Swine Fever Auricle of the heart with haemorrhages. There are no haemorrhages on the ventricular muscle in this case.

481 African Swine Fever Liver of a pig with acute African Swine Fever. Note the subcapsular haemorrhages, the distended and oedematous gall bladder and the haemorrhagic hepatic lymph node. Haemorrhage in the hepatic lymph node is one of the most consistent findings in the atypical and chronic forms of the disease. :

481 African Swine Fever Liver of a pig with acute African Swine Fever. Note the subcapsular haemorrhages, the distended and oedematous gall bladder and the haemorrhagic hepatic lymph node. Haemorrhage in the hepatic lymph node is one of the most consistent findings in the atypical and chronic forms of the disease.

482 African Swine Fever Haemorrhagic lymph nodes may resemble blood clots. There are few, if any, other diseases In which this type of lesion can be found. :

482 African Swine Fever Haemorrhagic lymph nodes may resemble blood clots. There are few, if any, other diseases In which this type of lesion can be found.

483 African Swine Fever Kidney showing severe haemorrhage into the pelvis. The petechiated 'turkey-egg' kidney of Swine Fever is less common in African Swine Fever. :

483 African Swine Fever Kidney showing severe haemorrhage into the pelvis. The petechiated 'turkey-egg' kidney of Swine Fever is less common in African Swine Fever.

484 Swine Vesicular Disease Early lesions on the coronary bands, 24 hours post-infection. :

484 Swine Vesicular Disease Early lesions on the coronary bands, 24 hours post-infection.

485 Swine Vesicular Disease Coronary band lesions. at least five days post-infection. :

485 Swine Vesicular Disease Coronary band lesions. at least five days post-infection.

486 Swine Vesicular Disease Separation at the coronary band at nine days plus. :

486 Swine Vesicular Disease Separation at the coronary band at nine days plus.

487 Swine Vesicular Disease Marked claw separation and a skin lesion above the supernumerary digit. Seen 13 days post- infection.:

487 Swine Vesicular Disease Marked claw separation and a skin lesion above the supernumerary digit. Seen 13 days post- infection.

488 Swine Vesicular Disease Late lesions with under-running of the horn in two locations on the same foot. This type of lesion appears to be caused by successive waves of infection. :

488 Swine Vesicular Disease Late lesions with under-running of the horn in two locations on the same foot. This type of lesion appears to be caused by successive waves of infection.

489 Swine Vesicular Disease Note the shallow ulcers on the snout and one on the lower lip:

489 Swine Vesicular Disease Note the shallow ulcers on the snout and one on the lower lip .

490 Foot and Mouth Disease A clinically- affected pig. Note the posture. The animal is severely lame, and would normally be lying down but has been made to stand. Affected pigs resent being disturbed. :

490 Foot and Mouth Disease A clinically- affected pig. Note the posture. The animal is severely lame, and would normally be lying down but has been made to stand. Affected pigs resent being disturbed.

491 Foot and Mouth Disease Vesicle on the snout of a pig affected with Foot and Mouth Disease. These vesicles rupture very quickly but fluid from them is the best source of virus for diagnosis. :

491 Foot and Mouth Disease Vesicle on the snout of a pig affected with Foot and Mouth Disease. These vesicles rupture very quickly but fluid from them is the best source of virus for diagnosis.

492 Foot and Mouth Disease An early case, the vesicles on the nose having ruptured recently leaving shallow ulcers. :

492 Foot and Mouth Disease An early case, the vesicles on the nose having ruptured recently leaving shallow ulcers.

493 Foot and Mouth Disease Lesions on the tongue; ruptured and unruptured vesicles. :

493 Foot and Mouth Disease Lesions on the tongue; ruptured and unruptured vesicles.

494 Foot and Mouth Disease Unruptured vesicles along the coronary band in an early case. :

494 Foot and Mouth Disease Unruptured vesicles along the coronary band in an early case.

495 Foot and Mouth Disease The vesicles on the feet have ruptured recently leaving raw, shallow ulcers. :

495 Foot and Mouth Disease The vesicles on the feet have ruptured recently leaving raw, shallow ulcers.

496 Foot and Mouth Disease Note the marked separation at the coronary band. :

496 Foot and Mouth Disease Note the marked separation at the coronary band.

497 Foot and Mouth Disease Marked separation occurring at the coronary band and severe heel lesions. :

497 Foot and Mouth Disease Marked separation occurring at the coronary band and severe heel lesions.

498 Foot and Mouth Disease Thimbling of the horn occurring in older lesions. :

498 Foot and Mouth Disease Thimbling of the horn occurring in older lesions.

499 Vesicular Exanthema Snout of a pig with primary lesions of Vesicular Exanthema. Note the ragged area resulting from a ruptured vesicle. :

499 Vesicular Exanthema Snout of a pig with primary lesions of Vesicular Exanthema. Note the ragged area resulting from a ruptured vesicle.

500 Vesicular Exanthema Tongue of a pig with vesicular exanthema. :

500 Vesicular Exanthema Tongue of a pig with vesicular exanthema.

501 Vesicular Stomatitis Vesicles on the snout of a pig with Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the large blanched area (arrow). :

501 Vesicular Stomatitis Vesicles on the snout of a pig with Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the large blanched area (arrow).

502 Vesicular Stomatitis Oral cavity of a pig with Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the freshly- ruptured vesicles on the tongue. :

502 Vesicular Stomatitis Oral cavity of a pig with Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the freshly- ruptured vesicles on the tongue.

503 Vesicular Stomatitis Tongue from a case of Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the pale patches which are fibrinous exudate over the site of ruptured vesicles. :

503 Vesicular Stomatitis Tongue from a case of Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the pale patches which are fibrinous exudate over the site of ruptured vesicles.

504 Vesicular Stomatitis Tongue from a case of Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the healing ulcer on the site of a vesicle. :

504 Vesicular Stomatitis Tongue from a case of Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the healing ulcer on the site of a vesicle.

505 Vesicular Stomatitis Foot from an early case of Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the large ruptured vesicle on the heel. The lesion has caused under-running of the newly-formed horn at the heel. :

505 Vesicular Stomatitis Foot from an early case of Vesicular Stomatitis. Note the large ruptured vesicle on the heel. The lesion has caused under-running of the newly-formed horn at the heel.

506 Swine Pox An affected eight-week-old piglet. Note the distribution of the lesions arid the length of the hair coat. :

506 Swine Pox An affected eight-week-old piglet. Note the distribution of the lesions arid the length of the hair coat.

507 Swine Pox Typical lesions of Swine Pox at the papular stage. Note the red colour of the early lesions and their small size. :

507 Swine Pox Typical lesions of Swine Pox at the papular stage. Note the red colour of the early lesions and their small size. .

508 Swine Pox in a sucking piglet showing lesions in various stages of development. :

508 Swine Pox in a sucking piglet showing lesions in various stages of development.

509 Swine Pox Hindquarters of a coloured pig. Note the way in which the lesions are raised and are still visible. This raised nature is not so noticeable in the white pigs where colour forms the main diagnostic feature :

509 Swine Pox Hindquarters of a coloured pig. Note the way in which the lesions are raised and are still visible. This raised nature is not so noticeable in the white pigs where colour forms the main diagnostic feature

510 Swine Pox Carcase of a six-week-old pig which has died whilst infected with Pig Pox. Note the distribution of the lesions. :

510 Swine Pox Carcase of a six-week-old pig which has died whilst infected with Pig Pox. Note the distribution of the lesions.

511 Swine Pox Scab formation in the later stages of the disease. :

511 Swine Pox Scab formation in the later stages of the disease.

512 Congenital Tremor A-II An affected four- day-old piglet from a litter with eight trembling piglets, two normal piglets and three stillborn piglets. :

512 Congenital Tremor A-II An affected four- day-old piglet from a litter with eight trembling piglets, two normal piglets and three stillborn piglets.

513 Congenital Tremor A-II Histological section of cerebral white matter from a pig with Congenital Tremor A-II. Note the demyelination (arrows). :

513 Congenital Tremor A-II Histological section of cerebral white matter from a pig with Congenital Tremor A-II. Note the demyelination (arrows).

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