disaster nursing

Category: Education

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“Any occurrence, that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area” (WHO) ………………….Disaster

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Can be Natural : Major like Flood, Cyclone, Drought , Earthquake and minor like Cold wave, thunderstorms, Heat waves , Mud slides, Storm…. Manmade : Major like Setting of fires , Epidemic , Deforestation , Pollution, Wars  and minor like Road / train accidents, riots ,Food poisoning ,Industrial disaster/crisis.

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Levels of disaster Level iii disaster -minor disaster , minimal damage Level ii disaster- moderate disaster Level i disaster- massive disaster ,massive level of damage, severe impact.

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Disaster requires special preparedness, alertness to be dealt with .. With the increase in frequency of such incidents over the time… it has been realized that the nurses need to be thoroughly accustomed to patient care during a Disaster …. Giving rise to Disaster Nursing…..

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The adaptation of professional nursing knowledge , skills and attitude in recognizing and meeting the nursing and medical needs of disaster victims is DISASTER NURSING ….. And Disaster Nurse performs the role of caring for disaster victims.

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BASIC PRINCIPLES - DISASTER NURSING • N- ursing Plans • U- pdate preparedness • R- esponsible to Organize, teach and supervise • S- timulate Community Participation • E- xercise Competence

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Phases of Disaster

Phases of disaster management :

Phases of disaster management

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Mitigation is minimizing the effect of disaster. Decrease the effect of unavoidable disasters Vulnerability analyses update Zoning and land use management Building use regulation & safety codes Preventive health care Public education

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Activities that reduce or eliminate a hazard Prevention Risk reduction Examples Immunization programs Public education

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Preparedness: Involves developing plans to save lives, minimize disaster damage, and enhance disaster response operations. It involves self, community, professional preparedness. Preparedness measures include preparedness plans, emergency exercises/training, warning systems, emergency communications systems, evacuations plans and training, resource inventories, emergency personnel/contact lists , mutual aid agreements , public information/education.

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Response: Response is defined as the actions taken to save lives and prevent further damage in a disaster or emergency situation. Response activities may include damage assessment fire fighting sheltering victims Search and rescue First aid Triage & stabilization of victims Hospital treatment : primary and secondary assessment. Redistribution of patients to other hospitals.

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Triage- a predetermined triage should be undertaken to classify the causalities. For large number of casualties the triage team should incorporate a surgeon, an orthopedic surgeon, physician and an anesthesiologist and nurses. Priority one- needing immediate resuscitation, after emergency treatment shifted to intensive care unit Priority two- immediate surgery, transferred immediately to operation theatre. Priority three- needing first aid and possible surgery- give first aid and admit if bed is available or shift to hospital Priority four- needing only first aid-discharge after first aid.

Simple triage and rapid treatment (START) :

Simple triage and rapid treatment (START) This system takes into account the respiratory status, the perfusion and the mental status of the patient. The patients who can walk are asked to move away from the incident area and is categorized under GREEN. After assessment of respiratory rate, pulse and ability to follow command the victims are categorized under RED, YELLOW and BLACK.

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Rehabilitation and reconstruction: Rehabilitation is the actions taken in the aftermath of a disaster to enable basic services to resume functioning, assist victim’s self-help. Reconstruction is the permanent construction or replacement of severely damaged physical Structures, the full restoration of all services and local infrastructure, and the revitalization of the economy (including agriculture).

Core competencies in disaster nursing training:

Core competencies in disaster nursing training Ethical and legal issues, and decision making Care principles Nursing care Needs assessment and planning Safety and security Communication and interpersonal relationships Public health Health care systems and policies in emergency situations (WHO, 2008)

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ROLES and RESPONSIBILITIES • D- isseminate information • I- nterpret health laws and regulations • S- erv e • A- ccepts directions and take orders • S- upervise the best of the MOST • T- each the meaning of warning signals • E- xercise leadership • R- efer to appropriate agencies

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Disaster preparedness, including risk assessment and multi-disciplinary management strategies at all system levels, is critical to the delivery of effective responses to the short, medium, and long-term health needs of a disaster-stricken population. I nternational Council of Nurses (2006)

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Disasters are highly complex events resulting in immediate medical problems, as well as long term public health and psycho-emotional disruptions. Health professionals and community people should stay prepared to prevent, detect and manage disasters………….

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