Psychological assessment and tests [Autosaved]

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BY ROHINI SHARMA Psychological assessment and tests

What is a psychological test?:

What is a psychological test? A psychological test is a structured technique to generate carefully selected sample of behavior. It is used to derive inference about someone's behavior on basis of results of the tests. We can judge the level of attributes like intelligence , self-esteem , aptitude in an individual.

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Psychological tests are as: cognitive functioning Intelligence Aptitude Achievement personality Objective Projective Neuropsychological

Characteristics of tests:

Characteristics of tests Measure attributes. Gives systematic inferences about other person’s attitudes , behavior , intelligence. Standard way of generating samples of people’s behavior. Test performance of different people can be compared directly. Rules are given reducing subjectivity and improving objectivity. Tests can be interpreted easily giving / generating data about the people characteristics.

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Validity. Reliability. Practicability. Usability. Uniform as different testers will follow same test steps anywhere. Biases due to personal reasons is reduced. Norms are set to work with. CHARACTERISTICS OF A TEST

Types of tests::

Types of tests: Depending upon time limit: Speed test and power test. e.g. Kaufman Assessment battery for children ( intelligence test to find fast learners) Depending upon number of individuals: Group test and Individual tes t.

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Depending upon language: Verbal and Non- verbal test. Depending upon method: Paper -pencil and performance test .

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Depending upon what is measured: Intelligence tests Aptitude tests Achievement tests Personality tests.

Intelligence tests::

Intelligence tests: These include: Stanford – Binet test. Ravens Progressive Matrices. Group tests of Army Alpha and Beta types. Weschler intelligence test. Bhatia's Battery of performance test of intelligence.

Stanford Binet test:

Stanford Binet test Two French scientists named Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon devised a new way to test intelligence called the Binet-Simon Scale in 1909. Alfred Binet was comissioned by French gov to separate children into vocational vs academic schooling This intelligence test measured someone’s intelligence using the performance method, which involved testing intelligence based upon someone’s ability to give correct answers to a series of questions.

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To help compare intelligence between different types of people, the Binet-Simon Scale used a measure called mental age. For example, if on average a group of nine year olds score twenty correct questions, and then a child who is seven years old scores the same amount, then that seven year old child is said to have a mental age of nine. In general, mental age should rise as a person grows older. So the older they are, the better they will do on the test. Between 2- 23 years of age.

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It is a point grading done. Developed Intelligence Quotient IQ = (MA/CA)*100 MA= Mental Age; CA = Chronological Age

1916 Stanford-Binet Sample Items for 12 yr olds:

1916 Stanford-Binet Sample Items for 12 yr olds Orange. 45. Sportive. 80. Exaltation. 92. Theosophy FOR THE STARTED AN WE COUNTRY EARLY AT HOUR TO ASKED PAPER MY TEACHER CORRECT I MY A DEFENDS DOG GOOD HIS BRAVELY MASTER 3-1-8-7-9 6-9-4-8-2 5-2-9-6-1 Vocabulary Grammar Memory Snake, cow, sparrow Book, teacher, newspaper Wool, cotton, leather Similarities Interpretation Practical Problem Solving

Army alpha and Beta tests:

Army alpha and Beta tests Army Alpha/Beta IQ Test (1917) – designed for World War I recruits Assumed to be testing native intelligence Alpha for literates; Beta for illiterates and non-English speakers Alpha subtests: Oral Directions; Arithmetic; Practical Judgment; Analogies; Disarranged Sentences; Number Series; Information Beta subtests: Memory; Matching; Picture Completion; Geometric Construction

Stimulus Mask:

Stimulus Mask Seeing this figure , the stimulus is shown and masked and person is asked to tell the answer if the long side of stimulus is on left or right.

Weschler Intelligence test:

Weschler Intelligence test Weschler Intelligence Scale (David Weschler, 1939-81) – designed to show subtest scores Contains Verbal and Performance subtests Performance compared to same age peers – raw score has different interpretation depending on age Designed widely used test for adults (WAIS), children (WISC), and preschoolers (WPPSI)

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WAIS-R Testing kit Testing Booklet Story Cards Puzzle Pieces Block Design

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Verbal tests: Information Comprehension Arithmetic Similarities Digit span Vocabulary Letter number Sequencing. Performance scale: Digit symbol Picture completion Block design Picture arrangement Matrix reasoning Object assembly Symbol search

Verbal Intelligence Test :

Verbal Intelligence Test Information : A persons level of general knowledge Comprehension : How well you can understand questions and grasp concepts. Arithmetic : A persons mathematical abilities. Similarities : Measures abstract thought. Digit Span : Measures attention span. Vocabulary : How many word meanings you know.

Performance Intelligence Test :

Performance Intelligence Test Digit Symbol : Mental flexibility with random symbols. Picture Completion : Ability to notice differences between two similar pictures. Block Design : Mentally construct printed designs in your head. Picture Arrangement : Arrange pictures in a logical order. Object Assembly : Place the correct part in relationship to a whole.

RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES:

RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES The test consists of 50 designs each of which has a cut out segment . The subject is shown the 6-8 cut out alternative pieces and is asked to indicate what to be put in the matrix. There is children Progressive Matrices, standard progressive matrices, advanced matrices.

Uses of the intelligence tests::

Uses of the intelligence tests: Predicts to some extent how well we will do in life Many occupations are available only to persons with college or graduate degrees. It takes less time to train persons with higher intelligence to a high level of job knowledge and skill. Persons with higher intelligence tend to perform better in complex jobs.

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Guidance , counseling Help to place vocationally. Select right person for promotion. Job selection, diagnosis of mental states and treatment. Helps to measure intellectual functions of memory , problem solving and verbal fluency. Diagnose the differences between two individuals on basis of their intellectual differences and leading to the development of the knowledge about the individual differences.

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A personality test aims to describe aspects of a person's character that remain stable throughout that person's lifetime, the individual's character pattern of behavior, thoughts, and feelings.

Personality tests :

Personality tests Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI] Rorschach Inkblot Test Thematic Apperception Test , or TAT 16PF Questionnaire The Situational Judgement Test Performance testing

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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests developed to identify emotional disorders

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The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health. The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology.

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The original authors of the MMPI were Starke R. Hathaway, PhD, and J. C. McKinley, MD. The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of Minnesota. The standardized answer sheets can be hand scored with templates that fit over the answer sheets, but most tests are computer scored. It is appropriate for use with adults 18 and over. The current MMPI-2 has 567 items, all true-or-false format, and usually takes between 1 and 2 hours to complete depending on reading level.

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Clinical scales Scale 1 (AKA the Hypochondriasis Scale) Scale 2 (AKA the Depression Scale) Scale 3 (AKA the Hysteria Scale) Scale 4 (AKA the Psychopathic Deviate Scale) Scale 5 (AKA the Femininity/Masculinity Scale) Scale 6 (AKA the Paranoia Scale) Scale 7 (AKA the Psychasthenia Scale) Scale 8 (AKA the Schizophrenia Scale) Scale 9 (AKA the Mania Scale) : Scale 0 (AKA the Social Introversion Scale)

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Like many standardized tests, scores on the various scales of the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF are not representative of either percentile rank or how "well" or "poorly" someone has done on the test. Raw scores on the scales are transformed into a standardized metric known as T-scores (Mean or Average equals 50, Standard Deviation equals 10), making interpretation easier for clinicians.

MMPI: examples:

MMPI: examples “Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the comics.” “I get angry sometimes.”

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Rorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach Rorschach

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Used to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) People express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

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The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a projective psychological test. Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests. Its adherents assert that the TAT taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities.

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The TAT is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique because it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous pictures about which the subject is asked to tell a story . The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented, including the following: what has led up to the event shown what is happening at the moment what the characters are feeling and thinking what the outcome of the story was

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There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. Some of the cards show male figures, some female, some both male and female figures, some of ambiguous gender, some adults, some children, and some show no human figures at all. One card is completely blank.

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The TAT is a projective test in that, like the Rorschach test, its assessment of the subject is based on what he or she projects onto the ambiguous images. Therefore, to complete the assessment, each narrative created by a subject must be carefully recorded and analyzed to uncover underlying needs, attitudes, and patterns of reaction.

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TAT was developed by the American psychologists Henry A. Murray and Christiana D. Morgan at Harvard during the 1930s to explore the underlying dynamics of personality, such as internal conflicts, dominant drives, interests, and motives.

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The TAT is often administered to individuals as part of a battery, or group, of tests intended to evaluate personality. It is considered to be effective in eliciting information about a person's view of the world and his or her attitudes toward the self and others. As people taking the TAT proceed through the various story cards and tell stories about the pictures, they reveal their expectations of relationships with peers, parents or other authority figures, subordinates, and possible romantic partners. In addition to assessing the content of the stories that the subject is telling, the examiner evaluates the subject's manner, vocal tone, posture, hesitations, and other signs of an emotional response to a particular story picture.

USES:

USES Individual assessments for employment in fields requiring a high degree such as law enforcement, military leadership positions. For diagnosis in order to match psychotherapy best suited to patients personalities. Forensic purposes in evaluating the motivations and general attitudes of persons accused of violent crimes. Research into specific aspects of human personality, most often needs for achievement, fears of failure, hostility.

16PF Questionnaire :

16PF Questionnaire The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (or 16PF ), is a multiple-choice personality questionnaire which was developed over several decades of research by Raymond B. Cattell and his colleagues. 16 primary traits, "second-order" traits of personality i.e. Big Five are present showing structure of personality to be multi-level and hierarchical

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Social Boldness Sensitivity Vigilance Abstractedness Privateness Apprehensiveness Openness to Change Self-Reliance Perfectionism Tension Reasoning Warmth Emotional Stability Dominance Liveliness Rule-Consciousness 16 Personality traits are:

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The 16PF model is hierarchical. When the 16 primary traits were factor-analyzed, they revealed five Global Factors, which describe personality at a broader level. Extraversion Anxiety Tough-Mindedness Independence Self-Control

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The 16PF Fifth Edition c ontains 185 multiple-choice items which are written at a fifth-grade reading level. Of these items, 76% were from the four previous 16PF editions, although many of them were re-written to simplify or update the language. The item content typically sounds non-threatening and asks simple questions about daily behavior, interests, and opinions.

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One particular characteristic of the 16PF Questionnaire is that its items tend to sample a broad range of actual behavior by asking questions about daily, concrete situations, rather than asking the test-taker to simply make a self-assessment of their own personality traits as some tests do (e.g. current popular tests include "I am a warm and friendly person; I am not a worrier; I am an even tempered person.").

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When I find myself in a boring situation, I usually "tune out" and daydream about other things. True/False. Each occupation has its own ____ ; bankers, lawyers and computer professionals, for example, all use among themselves language which outsiders have difficulty following. A. merits B. disadvantages C. rewards D. jargon E. problems

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The test also includes three validity scales: a bi-polar Impression Management (IM) scale, an Acquiescence (ACQ) scale, and an Infrequency (INF) scale. The reasoning ability (Factor B) items appear at the end of the test booklet with separate instructions, because they are the only items that have right and wrong answers

The Situational Judgement Test :

The Situational Judgement Test The Situational Judgement Test (SJT) assesses judgement required for solving problems in work-related situations. Hypothetical and challenging situations that one might encounter at work, and that involve working with others as part of a team, interacting with others, and dealing with workplace dilemmas. In response to each situation, you are presented with five possible actions that one might take in dealing with the problem described. Your task on the test will be to select the one response alternative that is the most effective and the one response alternative that is the least effective in dealing with the problem described.

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The Situational Judgement Test (SJT) consists of fifty short descriptions of problem situations. Each of them is followed by two questions (asking you to select the most effective response and the least effective response alternatives). There are thus a total of 100 questions to be answered. Each question is worth one mark. Your score will be the total number of correct answers. No specialized training, knowledge, or experience is required in order to write this test. You will be given 90 minutes to complete this test. Including the time for administrative purposes, a test session takes about 2 hours .

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Q This morning, you found a fax in your in-box that seems to concern a colleague's home business. She normally does not use the fax for business purposes. Politely, tell your co-worker that you will inform the manager the next time you catch her using office resources for private business. Report the incident to the manager. Put the fax in the manager's mailbox without saying anything to anyone. Put the fax in your co-worker's mailbox without saying anything to anyone. Give the fax to your co-worker and remind her that office equipment is not supposed to be used for personal use.

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Q.1 The most effective response to this situation would be: Number 5 is the most effective response, so you would darken circle number 5 on your answer sheet as illustrated below: Q.2 The least effective response to this situation would be: Number 4 is the least effective response, so you would darken circle number 4 on your answer sheet as illustrated below:

Performance testing :

Performance testing Performance Testing covers a broad range of engineering or functional evaluations where a material, product, system, or person is not specified by detailed material or component specifications: rather, emphasis is on the final measurable performance characteristics. Testing can be a qualitative or quantitative procedure. Performance testing can refer to the assessment of the performance of a human examinee.

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Examples Building and Construction Performance Testing Fire protection (ASTM D176) Packaging Performance (hazardous materials, dangerous goods, ASTM D4169) Performance Index for Tires (ASTM F538) Personal protective equipment performance Performance test (bar exam) for lawyers Proficiency Testing, Performance test (assessment)

Advantages Disadvantages:

Advantages Disadvantages Easy Economical Higher interrater reliability Rely on clients which could lead to a response bias. Tells little about unconscious process. Limited to high functioning individuals .

Advantages Disadvantages:

Advantages Disadvantages Less response bias Interpretation not objective. Interpretation not consistent. Lack of standard scoring.

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