perception

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1 Organizational Behavior / Perception A PRESENTATION ON PERCEPTION BY: ROHINI SHARMA

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In philosophy, psychology, and cognitive science, perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. The word "perception" comes from the Latin words perceptio, percipio, and means "cabra macho in Nigerian, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses."

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“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge.

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5 Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection

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7 Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations Perception Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity Factors in the situation Time Work Setting Social Setting

FACTORS AFFECTING : 

FACTORS AFFECTING Functioning of Sense Organs Functioning of Brain Previous Experience Frequency of Exposure Psychological State Interest Motivation Behavior of Organism

THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS : 

11 Organizational Behavior / Perception THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS Sensation An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. 3. Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” 4. Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

PRINCIPLES : 

PRINCIPLES Principle of Figure ground relationship

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PRINCIPLE OF SIMILARITY

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The principle of similarity states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging together. In the example to the right, the two filled lines gives our eyes the impression of two horizontal lines, even though all the circles are equidistant from each other

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PRINCIPLE OF PROXIMITY The principle of proximity or contiguity states that things which are closer together will be seen as belonging together. Looking at the picture to the right, since the horizontal rows of circles are closer together than the vertical columns, we perceive two vertical lines. Since the first two columns and the last two columns have less space between them than the center two columns, we perceive two groups of two columns.

PRINCIPLE OF CONTINUATION : 

PRINCIPLE OF CONTINUATION The principle of continuity predicts the preference for continuous figures. We perceive the figure as two crossed lines instead of 4 lines meeting at the center.

PRINCIPLE OF CLOSURE : 

PRINCIPLE OF CLOSURE The principle of closure applies when we tend to see complete figures even when part of the information is missing. We see three black circles covered by a white triangle, even through it could just as easily be three incomplete circles joined together. Our minds react to patterns that are familiar, even though we often receive incomplete information.

PRINCIPLE OF AREA : 

PRINCIPLE OF AREA The principle of area states that the smaller of two overlapping figures is perceived as figure while the larger is regarded as ground. We perceive the smaller square to be a shape on top of the other figure, as opposed to a hole in the larger shape. We can reverse this perception by using shading to get our message across, as seen below.

PRINCIPLE OF SYMMETRY : 

PRINCIPLE OF SYMMETRY The principle of symmetry describes the instance where the whole of a figure is perceived rather than the individual parts which make up the figure. What do you see to the right? Two overlapping diamonds, or three objects, a small diamond and two irregular objects above and below it? If you are perceiving according to the principle of symmetry, you will probably see two diamonds overlapping.

ERRORS IN PERCEPTION : 

ERRORS IN PERCEPTION ILLUSION: Types: These are – Audio , visual HALLUCINATIONS: Types: Visual , Auditory , Olfactory , Gustatory ,

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Anesthesia ; No response to the sensory any sensory stimuli . Due to defective sense organs , emotional stress etc. Hyper-thesia means excessive response to stimuli. Reacting voilently to noise , bright lights. Pares-thesia means false sensation due to poor physiological balance e.g. sensation of offensive smell / bitter taste.

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