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A group is formed when the “Two or More individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives”. Slide 4: A group can be identified by: Studying the perception group , cognition of each group members to determine as to which other individuals exist for each of the members psychologically. Analysis of the group itself and the behavior of each of its members to ascertain as to whether or not a particular individuals fits in as member. TYPES OF GROUPS : TYPES OF GROUPS Psychological group: A psychological group may be defined as one in which the two or more persons who are interdependent as each members nature influences every other person, members share an ideology and have common tasks. These include families, friendship circles, political clubs, work, educational, religious, neighborhood, and recreational groups. Slide 6: The social groups may be defined as integrated system of interrelated psychological groups formed to accomplish a defined function or objective. A political party with its many local political clubs , friendship circles are the social organizations. Slide 7: Formal groups refer to those which are established under the legal or formal authority with the view to achieve a particular end result and The group is designated by the organizational structure, having work assignments establishing tasks. E.g People making up the airline flight crew, trade unions. Slide 8: Informal groups refers to the aggregate of the personal contacts and interaction and the network of relationships among individuals obtained in the formal groups. These groups may take the form of the interest or friendship groups. Slide 9: The primary groups are characterized by small size, face to face interactions and intimacy among the members of the group. The examples are family groups, pay groups and neighborhood groups. Slide 10: The secondary groups are characterized by large size and individuals identification with the values and beliefs prevailing in them rather than actual interactions. E.g. occupational associations and ethnic groups. Slide 11: The membership group is those where the individual actually belongs and reference group is one in which they would like to belong. Slide 12: The command group are formed by subordinates reporting directly to the particular manager and are determined by the formal organizational chart. E.g. an assistant regional transport officer and his two transport supervisors form a command group. Slide 13: The task groups are composed of people who work together to perform a task but involve a cross- command relationship. Its boundaries are not located within its immediate hierarchical superior. E.g for finding out who was responsible for causing wrong medication order would require liaison between ward in charge, senior sisters and head nurse. Slide 14: The interest group involves people who come together to accomplish a particular goal with which they are concerned .Office employees joining hands to go to vacation or get vacation schedule changed form an interest group . Slide 15: The friendship group are formed by people having one or more common features . The people coming from a particular area or having same language to speak belong to a friendship group. Mayo and Lombard classify the informal groups into : : Mayo and Lombard classify the informal groups into : Natural Groups : It reveals no to little internal structure . Family Groups : These possess a core of regulars who exerts marked influence on the behavior of the members. Organized Groups : These possess acknowledged leaders who themselves dedicatedly with intelligence and skill attain group integrity. Sayles classifies informal groups into four categories as: : Sayles classifies informal groups into four categories as: Apathetic groups : These groups possess consistently indifferent attitudes towards informal groups and are characterized by dispersed , lack of cohesiveness , internal disunity and conflict. Strategic Groups: There is consistent antagonism, continuous pressures, high degree of internal unity and usually good production record in the long run. Slide 18: Erratic Groups : These groups fluctuate between antagonism and cooperation marked by the poorly controlled pressure tactics , behavior inconsistency , quick conversation to good relations with management , centralized and union formation activities. Conservative groups: These groups are marked by the usual cooperation , limited pressures for highly specific objectives , moderate internal unity and self – assurance. Dalton’s analysis classifies informal groups as: : Dalton’s analysis classifies informal groups as: Horizontal groups: These are associations of the worker, managers or any other members of equal ranks engaged in performing more or less similar works. Vertical groups: These are composed of members from varied levels within a particular department. e.g. workers , foreman , managers. Mixed Groups: Refers to groups composed of members of varied ranks, department and physical location FUNCTIONS OF THE GROUPS : FUNCTIONS OF THE GROUPS 1. Formal organizational functions: These relates to basic mission attainment by the organization. The group completes the work, creates ideas and embraces all activities for which they are accountable. 2. Psychological Personal functions: The group formation facilitates psychological functioning , satisfaction of the needs, outlet for affiliation and helps in getting stability and enhancing the achievements. 3. Mixed or Multiple functions: The formal as well as informal both kinds of roles are taken up by the members of the group. The formal group can try to fulfill various psychological roles and leading to increased loyalty, commitment and energy for effective attainment of the administrative and organizational goals. Slide 21: GROUP DYNAMICS: The group dynamics is that division of social psychology that investigates the formation and change in the structure and functions of the psychological grouping of people into self-directing wholes. Slide 22: CONCEPT OF GROUP DYNAMICS: It was at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that the Research Centre for the group dynamics was founded in 1945 and later in 1948 was moved to the University of Michigan. It was founded by Kurt Lewin to study group decision, group productivity, group interaction, group cohesiveness and group communication. Slide 23: The underlying assumption was that the laws of the group behavior can be established independently of the goals or specific activities of group irrespective of the structure of the group. A variety of experiments later on by Herbert Spenser, All port , George Simmel , put forward the concept of group dynamics as a technique of fostering the conciliation between individuals and groups with an idea to formulate principles which underlie group behavior , and devise principles of group decisions and actions. THEORIES OF GROUP FORMATION: : THEORIES OF GROUP FORMATION: Most basic theory is of Propinquity which asserts that people tend to affiliate with other because of spatial or geographical closeness. People from the same area or city tend to be more bound to each other. Slide 26: The other theory of importance is Social System Theory given by Homans. The theory corporates the interrelatedness of elements of activities , interaction , sentiments and the people usually interact to solve problems, reduce tension , attain goals and achieve balance. The workers interacting in this way in organizational setting tends to form groups. Slide 27: The Balance theory given by Newcomb says that the groups get formed when the individuals are attracted to each another because of their identical attitude towards the common objects or goals. The attraction and attitudes have to balance in this concept because if both are too strong or too vague or mild , the group interrelationships can disappear. Slide 28: The Exchange theory is based on rewards and its cost . The interaction between members is taken as reward and if any relationship which is not rewarding may be costly enough to cause tensions. PRINCIPLES OF THE GROUP DYNAMICS : PRINCIPLES OF THE GROUP DYNAMICS 1 . The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group .The barrier between leaders and to be led be broken down. 2. The more attraction a group is to its members, the greater influence it would exercise on them. 3. The greater the prestige of the group member / leader in the eyes of the members , the greater influence he would exercise on them. Slide 30: 4.The successful efforts to change individual sub parts of group makes them to confirm to norms of the group. 5. The pressures for change when strong can be established in the group by creating a shared perception by the members for the need for the change. 6. Information relating to the need for change, plans for change and the consequence of the changes must be shared by the members of the group. Slide 31: 7. The changes in one part of the groups may produce stress in the other parts, which can be reduced only by eliminating or allowing the change by bringing about readjustments in the related parts. 8. The groups arise and function owing to common motives. 9. The groups survive by placing the members into functional hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goal. 10. The inter group relations, group organization, member participation is essential for effectiveness of a group. Slide 32: THANKYOU You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.