Manitoulin Island Geology and Plant Communities

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants : 

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants Andy Fyon and Derek Armstrong Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Friends of Misery Bay, Manitoulin Island, August 24, 2010

Slide 2: 

Not horticulturists. Not experts on alvar flora. Flowering plants: hobby Derek Armstong is the real geologist. Prefer not to discuss medicinal or culinary uses of plants Tell a Story Don't have all the answers. Lots of questions – try together.

Story Outline : 

1: Ontario Geological Survey (Sponsor) 2: Fossil plants and Earth history 3: Manitoulin flora context 4: Geological history - Manitoulin 5: Evidence - Floristic regions 6: Geological Influences on Flora Story Outline Early Saxifrage Brachiopod

Slide 4: 

Ministry of Northern Development, Mines & Forestry 1. Ontario Geological Survey (Sponsor) Groundwater Landform, Habitat, Aggregate Mineral Resource Glacial deposits Rocks Geothermal Resource

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record : 

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record “Trees”, ferns, horsetail appeared 450 million yrs ago Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia - 350 million yrs BP “Flowering” Plant (Archaefructus sinensis) 125 million years old

3. Manitoulin Endemics, Disjuncts, and Calciphiles : 

3. Manitoulin Endemics, Disjuncts, and Calciphiles Endemic: unique to a geographic location and found nowhere else. Disjunct: Part of the range of a species that is disconnected from its contiguous range. A disjunct population. Calciphile: plant that thrives in calcareous soil. Manitoulin - Bruce = 95% of global range.

3. Manitoulin Flora - Forest Regions : 

3. Manitoulin Flora - Forest Regions Arctic Tundra Taiga - Lowlands Boreal Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Prairie Deciduous Newmaster et al. 1997

3. Manitoulin Plants: 8 of 9 Floristic Regions : 

3. Manitoulin Plants: 8 of 9 Floristic Regions Arctic Cordilleran Boreal Prairie Northern Mixed Forest Great Lake – St Lawrence Deciduous Forest Maritime Atlantic Coastal Plains Why??? Geological history?

4. Geological History - Manitoulin Island : 

4. Geological History - Manitoulin Island Manitoulin Gold, Misery Bay

Slide 10: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 11: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 12: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006) Niagara Escarpment “s”

Slide 13: 

Ordovician escarpment at Bridal Veil Falls

Slide 14: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006) Precambrian quartzites Unconformity Ordovician limestones Ordovician shales Silurian dolostones

Slide 15: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006) Bedrock Geology of Manitoulin Island

Slide 16: 

La Cloche Mountains (Precambrian quartzites)

Slide 17: 

Paleozoic (Shadow Lake Fm) / Precambrian unconformity (arrows), Highway 6, Great La Cloche Island

Slide 18: 

Ordovician Fossils (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 19: 

Ordovician Sea (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 20: 

Paleogeography (www.scotese.com)

Slide 21: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006) Silurian dolostones reef with oil fossiliferous

Slide 24: 

Silurian (Niagara) Escarpments – “Cup and Saucer”

Slide 25: 

Silurian Fossils

Slide 26: 

Silurian Fossils

Slide 27: 

Silurian Fossils chain coral

Slide 28: 

Silurian Fossils chain coral

Slide 29: 

Silurian Sea (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 30: 

Paleogeography (www.scotese.com)

Slide 31: 

(from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 32: 

Glacial Ice Coverage ~ 20,000 bp (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Glacially striated bedrock surface : 

Glacially striated bedrock surface

Glacially striated bedrock surface : 

Glacially striated bedrock surface

Slide 36: 

Very high lake levels after glacial retreat ~11,000 years bp (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Lake Algonquin gravel beach : 

Lake Algonquin gravel beach Cup and Saucer Pit

Slide 38: 

Low post-glacial lake levels ~10,000 years bp (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Slide 39: 

High post-glacial lake levels ~5,000 years bp (from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Bedrock surface eroded by receding Lake Nipissing : 

Bedrock surface eroded by receding Lake Nipissing

Slide 41: 

5. Geological History and Plant Communities on Manitoulin False Pennyroyal Maidenhair Spleenwort

What About Manitoulin Plants and Floristic Regions + Endemics? : 

What About Manitoulin Plants and Floristic Regions + Endemics? Arctic Cordilleran Boreal Prairie Northern Mixed Forest Great Lake – St Lawrence E. Deciduous Forest Maritime Atlantic Coastal Plains Why??? Geological history?

Arctic – Cordilleran – BorealGrass-of-Parnassus + Wild Chives + Alaska Rein Orchid : 

Arctic – Cordilleran – BorealGrass-of-Parnassus + Wild Chives + Alaska Rein Orchid

PrairieCylindric blazing star + Seneca Snakeroot + Early Buttercup + Prairie smoke : 

PrairieCylindric blazing star + Seneca Snakeroot + Early Buttercup + Prairie smoke

Northern Mixed – Great Lakes St. Lawrence - Endemic : 

Northern Mixed – Great Lakes St. Lawrence - Endemic Ram`s Head Orchid (Cypripedium arietinum) Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris) Manitoulin Gold (Hymenoxys herbacea) Hill`s Thistle (Cirsium hillii) Pitcher`s Thistle

Eastern Deciduous - Carolinian : 

Eastern Deciduous - Carolinian Canada Violet (Viola canadensis) White rattlesnake-root (Prenanthes alba)

Coastal Maritime : 

Coastal Maritime Sea-rocket (Cakile edentula) Beach Pea (Lathyrus japonicus)

Calciphile Plant Species : 

Calciphile Plant Species Sticky False-Asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa) Fringed Gentian (Gentiana procera) Bird`s-eye Primrose (Primula mistassinica) Kalm`s St. John`s-wort (Hypericum kalmianum) Kalm`s St. John`s-wort (Hypericum kalmianum)

Floristic Representation - Manitoulin : 

Floristic Representation - Manitoulin Why? - Geological history? Arctic, Boreal, Cordilleran Prairie Great Lake – St Lawrence, Northern Deciduous Forest Eastern Deciduous - Carolinian Maritime Endemic Calciphiles

6: Arctic Flora – Tundra at Glacier Front : 

6: Arctic Flora – Tundra at Glacier Front

6: Arctic Flora – Steps Beyond Glacier Front : 

6: Arctic Flora – Steps Beyond Glacier Front Mountain Goldenrod (S. Simplex) Artemisia

6: Boreal + Endemic Floristic Elements – Spruce Tundra Parkland Near Glacier : 

6: Boreal + Endemic Floristic Elements – Spruce Tundra Parkland Near Glacier

6: Western Floristic Elements - Prairie : 

6: Western Floristic Elements - Prairie Prairie, Alberta Cylindric Blazing Star (Liatris cylindracea)

6: Maritime Floristic Elements – Marine History : 

6: Maritime Floristic Elements – Marine History Beach Pea (Lathyrus japonicus) Beach Pea, Newfoundland Marine Eyles 2002

6: Southern Floristic Elements – Land bridge – 10,000 Years ago : 

6: Southern Floristic Elements – Land bridge – 10,000 Years ago White rattlesnake-root (Prenanthes alba) Eyles 2002 Northward migration of southern species

Summary13,000 years ago : 

Summary13,000 years ago Harsh cold climate around melting glacier. Manitoulin tundra & flora.

Summary8,000 years ago : 

Summary8,000 years ago Warming climate around melting glacier. Alpine, arctic, boreal, prairie, southern, endemics coexist along ice-front as the glacier melted.

6: Possible Landscape as Glacier Retreated : 

6: Possible Landscape as Glacier Retreated Migration of northern + western species. Tundra, boreal, prairie, coastal, southern, endemics coexist along ice-front as the glacier melted. Migration of coastal and southern species.

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants : 

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants Andy Fyon and Derek Armstrong Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Friends of Misery Bay, Manitoulin Island, August 24, 2010

Dr. Andy FyonDirector, Ontario Geological Surveywww.ontariogeologicalsurvey.ca(www.ontariowildflower.com)andy.fyon@ontario.caDerek ArmstrongGeoscientist, Ontario Geological Surveyderek.armstrong@ontario.ca : 

Dr. Andy FyonDirector, Ontario Geological Surveywww.ontariogeologicalsurvey.ca(www.ontariowildflower.com)andy.fyon@ontario.caDerek ArmstrongGeoscientist, Ontario Geological Surveyderek.armstrong@ontario.ca

authorStream Live Help