Wildflowers and geology, Manitoulin Island, Ontario

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Presentation Description

This presentation describes the geological history of the Manitoulin Island area, Ontario, and relates that geological history to the types of specialized plant communities that occur in different geological habitats. Habitats discussed include alvar, rock desert, sand dune, deciduous forest, and bog. The talk was presented at the Annual General Meeting of District 13, Ontario Horticultural Society, in Mindemoya, Manitoulin Island, Ontario, by Andy Fyon, Director, Ontario Geological Survey, MNDM on May 11, 2013.

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Geological History, Habitat and Flowering Plants Manitoulin Island:

Dr. Andy Fyon, Director, Ontario Geological Survey , Ontario Ministry of Northern Development & Mines Geolog ical History, Habitat and Flowering Plants Manitoulin Island Ontario Horticultural Society, District 13 May 11 , 201 3

Journey Today:

Journey Today Geology of Manitoulin Island area – abridged version! Relationship between g eolog ical habitat and plants , with focus on Manitoulin Island Area Geology Gives Plants Permission To Grow White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum )

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Not a biologist , botanist, or horticulturist Not an expert ; w ildflowers hobby Am a geologist by training Prefer not to discuss medicinal or culinary uses of plants Lots of questions, don't have all the answers, let’s try together

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4 Sponsor's Message Ontario Geological Survey Ministry of Northern Development + Mines Landforms Glacial deposits Rocks Minerals, Aggregate, Groundwater Energy: Geothermal G eology and Earth resources. Energy: non-renewable r ock Energy

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5 Economy Hazards, safety Protection Climate Change Infrastructure Environment, habitat Why document G eolog y? Health Ontario beneath our feet It matters to all of us!

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Ontario Geology Context Ontario Geological Survey Precambrian Shield

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La Cloche Mountains (Precambrian quartzites) Special habitat for plants (Desert)

Geological History: 495-450 million-years ago:

Geological History: 495-450 million-years ago Shallow warm seas deposit limestones on flat land Preserved: James Bay, Temiskaming, Hudson Bay ( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Limestone and dolomite rocks: special habitat for plants! Young Ocean Rocks

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Coniglio et al. 2006 Manitoulin Island: Geological History Blanket of Young Phanerozoic Rocks on Top Of Old Precambrian Rocks Phanerozoic rocks: 540 to 145 million yrs Precambrian Shield

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Fossils - Warm Tropical Ocean Chain coral Nautiloid

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Silurian Dolomite (Amabel), Providence Bay Harebell ( Campanula rotundifolia ) Special habitat for plants (Alvar)

Geological History: Glaciation 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago:

Geological History: Glaciation 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago Coniglio et al. 2006

Geological History: Glaciation 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago:

Geological History: Glaciation 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago Coniglio et al. 2006 Glaciation shapes land Glaciation ends about 12,000 yrs ago Ice melts and glacier melts northward Present landscape exposed

Glacier: Polished Rock - “Rock Desert”:

G lacier: Polished Rock - “Rock Desert” Glacia l erosion shapes land: special habitat for plants.

Lake Algonquin Bottom: 10,000 years ago:

Lake Algonquin Bottom: 10,000 years ago Larsen, 1987; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 1801 Manitoulin Island Melting glacier Flowed into Ottawa River Lake bottom sediments. Manitoulin submerged. Special implications for plants.

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Post-glacial lake levels ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

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organic layer beach deposit glacial till Glacial History - Glacial Deposits

Weathering of Dolomite: Pit Karren:

Weathering of Dolomite: Pit Karren Special plant habitat!

Manitoulin Raised Beaches - Lake Level Changes - Ancient Shorelines:

Manitoulin Raised Beaches - Lake Level Changes - Ancient Shorelines Special geological habitat for plants. Younger than 5000 years. Ancient shoreline formed as Lake Algonquin level dropped. Special geological habitat.

OK - Geology and Plants?:

OK - Geology and Plants? Carolina Spring Beauty ( Claytonia Virginica )

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Coniglio et al. 2006 Old Precambrian rock Ordovician limestone, shale Silurian dolomite, shale Meldrum Bay Providence Bay South Baymouth Gore Bay Little Current Mindemoya Bedrock Geology of Manitoulin Island

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Geology and Speciality Plants Limey vs Acid Soil Limestone: Limey Canadian Shield quartzite (Bar River Formation): Acidic

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Geology and Speciality Plants Limey vs Acidic Soil Yellow Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium calceolus): Limey soil Pink Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium acaule): Acidic soil

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La Cloche Mountains (Precambrian quartzites) Rock Desert Glacia l erosion shapes land: special habitat for plants. (Desert)

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La Cloche Mountains (Precambrian quartzites): Rock Desert

Rock Desert: Bristly Sarsaparilla (Aralia hispida):

Rock Desert : Bristly Sarsaparilla ( Aralia hispida ) Deep roots Narrow leaves

Rock Desert: Pearly Everlasting (Anapahlis margaritace):

Rock Desert : Pearly Everlasting ( Anapahlis margaritace ) D rought tolerant Narrow, silver leaves

Rock Desert: Lance-leaved Stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum):

Rock Desert : Lance-leaved Stonecrop ( Sedum lanceolatum ) Succulent : Photosynthesis Day: stomata close ( prevent water loss) Night: stomata open , CO2 enter s plant

Rock Desert: Common Juniper (Juniperus communis):

Rock Desert : Common Juniper ( Juniperus communis ) Full Sun Tolerates poor dry soil

“Rock Desert”: Geology - Plant Summary:

“ Rock Desert” : Geology - Plant Summary Geology Glacier creates rock desert Plant Response Full Sun Leaf design (narrow, silver) Deep tap roots Photosynthesis

Geological History 450 MY: Limestone + Dolomite:

Geological History 450 MY: Limestone + Dolomite ( from Coniglio et al. 2006) S pecial plant habitat Alvar!

Geology and Plants: Lake Huron Alvar Harsh Geological Habitat:

Geology and Plants : Lake Huron Alvar Harsh Geological Habitat Limestone, dolomite rock Little or no soil - glaciation / lake levels Low nutrient Limey groundwater + soil Open Sunlight Hot Spring flooding, summer drought

Ontario Alvars:

Ontario Alvars

Calcicole, Calciphyte or Calciphile Thrives in lime rich soil: Latin 'to dwell on chalk' :

C alcicole, C alciphyte or C alciphile T hrives in lime rich soil : Latin 'to dwell on chalk' Fringed Gentian ( Gentiana procera ) Kalm's Lobelia ( Lobelia kalmii )

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Alvar Plant: Wild Chives ( Allium schoenoprasum )

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Alvar Plant: Lakeside daisy / Manitoulin Gold ( Tetraneuris herbacea )

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Alvar Plant: Upland White Goldenrod ( Solidago ptarmicoides )

Alvar Plant: Hill's Thistle (Cirsium hillii) Dry Open Alvar Grassland, Shoreline Alvar:

Alvar Plant: Hill's Thistle ( Cirsium hillii ) Dry Open Alvar Grassland, Shoreline Alvar

Alvar Plant: Creeping Juniper (Juniperus horizontalis):

Alvar Plant: Creeping Juniper ( Juniperus horizontalis )

Alvar Plant: Sandcherry (Prunus pumila):

Alvar Plant: Sandcherry ( Prunus pumila )

Geology - Alvar Speciality Plants Summary:

Geology - Alvar Speciality Plants Summary Narrow-leaved Vervain ( Verbena simplex ) Geology Limestone / dolomite 450 million yrs ago Glaciation and lake levels Lime c onditions Plant adaptation Calcium- and magnesium-tolerant plants Heat + drought tolerant plants

Geology and Speciality Plants: Misery Bay Bog:

Geology and Speciality Plants: Misery Bay Bog Bog, fen, cedar swamp Acidic - poor nutrients Sphagnum moss , sedges Insectivorous ( Carnivorous ) plants

Bog Plant: Carnivorous (Insectivorous) Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea):

Bog Plant: Carnivorous (Insectivorous) Pitcher Plant ( Sarracenia purpurea )

Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea):

Leaves - “soup” + hairs Drowned insects Digestive enzymes Pitcher Plant ( Sarracenia purpurea )

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Geology Glaciation Misery Bay Low slope, poor drainage S phagnum moss A cidic conditions Plant adaptation Insectivorous Bog: Geology - Plant Summary

Lake Algonquin Bottom: 10,000 years ago:

Lake Algonquin Bottom: 10,000 years ago Larsen, 1987; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 1801 Manitoulin Island Melting glacier Lake bottom sediments. Manitoulin submerged. Special implications for plants.

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Farms?:

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Farms? Former lake bottom - rich, fertile soil

Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Deciduous Forest Habitat Former lake bottom - rich, fertile soil

Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum ) Carolina Spring Beauty ( Claytonia Virginica )

Spring Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Spring Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil Jack-in-the-Pulpit ( Arisaema triphyllum )

Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil Broad-leaved Toothwort ( Cardamine diphylla ) Trout Lily ( Erythronium americanum )

Wagg Memorial Park: Spring Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat: Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria):

Wagg Memorial Park: Spring Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat: Dutchman's Breeches ( Dicentra cucullaria ) Rich, fertile soil.

Summer Flora: Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Summer Flora: Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile soil Hairy Solomon`s-seal ( Polygonatum pubescens )

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Geology Glaciation Ancient Lake Algonquin Lake sediments Fertile soil Plant adaptation Rapid blooming Ephemeral Deciduous Forest: Geology - Plant Summary White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum )

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune:

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune Geological process: formed last 3000 to 6000 years post-glacial lakes began to recede reworked glacial sand

PowerPoint Presentation:

Waves Wind Vegetation Sand Dunes Created By:

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune How Dunes Form:

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune How Dunes Form Initial sand capture

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune:

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune Habitat conditions: extreme heat extreme light wind lack of nutrients moving sand (bury + sandblasting)

Dune Habitat: Beach Pea (Lathyrus japonicus):

Dune Habitat: Beach Pea ( Lathyrus japonicus ) Legume Dune stabilizer

Dune Habitat: Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) (monocarpic):

Dune Habitat: Pitcher's thistle ( Cirsium pitcheri ) (monocarpic) Threatened SARO List Dune stabilizer Flowers once 2 to 11 years dies

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune:

Geological Habitat: Sand Dune Habitat conditions: wet or dry calcaerous heat extreme light wind lack of nutrients moving sand

Dune Habitat: Bird`s-eye Primrose (Primula mistassinica):

Dune Habitat: Bird`s-eye Primrose ( Primula mistassinica ) Calciphile Early spring flower

Dune Habitat: False-Asphodel (Tofieldia glutinosa):

Dune Habitat: False-Asphodel ( Tofieldia glutinosa ) Calciphile Summer flower

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Micro-scale - Bedrock Geology - Weathering Dolomite; Pit karren holes: fill water, soil; plant foothold! Geological micro-habitat

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Bedrock Geology - Weathering: Pit Karren plant foothold: Low Calamint ( Calamintha arkansana )

Geology Influences Location and Type of Wildflower Communities:

Geology Influence s Location and Type of Wildflower Communities Geological Habitats Landscape Plant Communities Geological Processes

Dr. Andy Fyon (Geology Hat) Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.facebook.com/OGSgeology or (Wildflower Hat) www.ontariowildflower.com www.facebook.com/Andy.wildflowers:

Dr. Andy Fyon (Geology Hat) Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.facebook.com/OGSgeology or (Wildflower Hat) www.ontariowildflower.com www.facebook.com/Andy.wildflowers E-mail: Andy.fyon@ontario.ca

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