Geological History, Habitat and Flowering Plants, French River Area

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The geological history of the French River - Lake Nipissing area, Ontario, created several geological habitats where specialized flora abound. Understanding the geological history of the region of Ontario provides an important context for the geological habitats that sustain certain plant communities. Talk by Dr. Andy Fyon, Director, MNDM Ontario Geological Survey, May 5, 2013; dlivered to the French River Horticultural Club, in Noelville, Ontario.

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Geological History, Habitat and Flowering Plants Focus on French River Area:

Dr. Andy Fyon, Director, Ontario Geological Survey , Ontario Ministry of Northern Development & Mines Geolog ical History, Habitat and Flowering Plants Focus on French River Area French River Horticultural Society, May 5 , 201 3

Journey Today:

Journey Today Geology of French River area – abridged version! Relationship between g eolog ical habitat and plants , with focus on French River Area Geology Gives Plants Permission To Grow Wake Robin ( Trillium erectum )

PowerPoint Presentation:

Not a biologist , botanist, or horticulturist Not an expert ; w ildflowers hobby Am a geologist by training Prefer not to discuss medicinal or culinary uses of plants Lots of questions, don't have all the answers, let’s try together

PowerPoint Presentation:

4 Message from the Sponsor Ontario Geological Survey Ministry of Northern Development + Mines Landforms Glacial deposits Rocks Minerals, Aggregate, Groundwater Energy: Geothermal G eology and Earth resources. Energy: non-renewable r ock Energy

PowerPoint Presentation:

5 Economy Hazards, safety Protection Climate Change Infrastructure Environment, habitat Why document G eolog y? Health " Ontario beneath our feet" It matters to all of us!

Natural Context French River Area:

Natural Context French River Area Red = "French River" area Transition between Boreal Forest and Great Lakes - St. Lawrence forest regions.

PowerPoint Presentation:

PART 1: Ontario Geology Context Old Precambrian Shield Youngest Precambrian Shield (Grenville) Young Precambrian Shield Ontario Geological Survey Young Ocean Rocks

PowerPoint Presentation:

Grenville: Youngest Precambrian Shield History Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Zone Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) Grenville Front CMB: 1.3 billion yr old ocean floor basalt + peridotite (serpentine), sediments (schist), limestone (marble), sandstone (quartzite), granite CGB: 2.7 - 1.45 billion yrs old gneiss / granite Old Precambrian Shield: 3-2 billion yrs Young Precambrian Shield: 2 billion yrs Paleozoic limestone: 450 million yrs

PowerPoint Presentation:

Grenville: Youngest Precambrian Shield History Central Gneiss Belt (CGB)

Grenville Geological History: Big Slabs + Big Mountains:

Grenville Geological History: Big Slabs + Big Mountains Nick Eyles 2002 Continents and volcanic islands collide Pushes rock slabs to northwest 1450 - 1040 million years: big mountains quilt work of rock packages mountain range like Himalayas rocks that were 750 ° C; 25 - 30 km deep 990-590 million years: erosion

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels:

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels Related to North America rifting to form the early Atlantic Ocean. Start of Ottawa Graben: special habitat for plants.

Geological History: 495-450 million-years ago:

Geological History: 495-450 million-years ago Shallow warm seas deposit limestones on flat land Preserved: James Bay, Temiskaming, Hudson Bay ( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Fossil Coral Limestone and dolomite rocks: special habitat for plants!

Lake Nipissing: Rift Valley, 175 Million Yrs Ago:

Lake Nipissing: Rift Valley, 175 Million Yrs Ago Lake Nipissing lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a rift valley. Special habitat for plants. home.cogeco.ca/~geoheritagenipissing/

Lake Nipissing: Rift Valley, 175 Million Yrs Ago:

Lake Nipissing: Rift Valley, 175 Million Yrs Ago Northern boundary of rift valley

Geological History: Glaciation 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago:

Geological History: Glaciation 2,500,000 to 20,000 years ago Coniglio et al. 2006 Glaciation shapes land Glaciation ends about 12,000 yrs ago Ice melts and retreats northward Present landscape exposed

Glacier: Kettle Lake:

G lacier: Kettle Lake Kettle Lake: Glaci er leaves big lump of ice. Special habitat for plants.

Glacier: Polished Rock - “Rock Desert”:

G lacier: Polished Rock - “Rock Desert” Glacia l erosion shapes land: special habitat for plants. Roche moutonnee

Geological History 11,000 years ago Great Lakes and Rivers:

Geological History 11,000 years ago Great Lakes and Rivers Dark blue = lakes 11,000 yrs ago Light blue - modern lakes Drainage: west to east Lake Hough --> French River --> Lake Nipissing --> Petawawa River --> Ottawa River ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Main Lake Algonquin Bottom: 11,000 years ago:

Main Lake Algonquin Bottom: 11,000 years ago Larsen, 1987; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 1801 Lake bottom sediments: Special habitat for plants (Fertile soil) Future Lake Nipissing

Lake Bottom: 10,000 - 4,000 years ago:

Lake Bottom: 10,000 - 4,000 years ago http://home.cogeco.ca/~geoheritagenipissing/ Light blue = glacial lake discharge Dark blue - present water Flowed into Ottawa River Special habitat for plants (Fertile soil)

Jocko Point Ancient shorelines:

Jocko Point Ancient shorelines Younger than 4700 years. Ancient shoreline formed as Lake Nipissing level dropped. Special geological habitat.

OK - Geology and Plants?:

OK - Geology and Plants? Carolina Spring Beauty ( Claytonia Virginica )

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels:

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels:

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels French River

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels:

Geological History: 590-570 million-years ago East-West Faults + Deep River Channels Willows in wet areas associated with faults.

Geological History 450 MY: Limestone + Dolomite:

Geological History 450 MY: Limestone + Dolomite Special habitat for plants Alvar! ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Geology and Plants: Lake Huron Alvar Harsh Geological Habitat:

Geology and Plants : Lake Huron Alvar Harsh Geological Habitat Limestone, dolomite rock Little or no soil Low nutrient alkaline soil Bicarbonate groundwater Open Sunlight Temperature moderated by proximity to lake Spring flooding, summer drought

Ontario Alvars:

Ontario Alvars

Calcicole, Calciphyte or Calciphile Thrives in lime rich soil: Latin 'to dwell on chalk' :

C alcicole, C alciphyte or C alciphile T hrives in lime rich soil : Latin 'to dwell on chalk' False-Asphodel ( Tofieldia glutinosa ) Fringed Gentian ( Gentiana procera )

Calcicole, Calciphyte or Calciphile Thrives in lime rich soil: Latin 'to dwell on chalk' :

C alcicole, C alciphyte or C alciphile T hrives in lime rich soil : Latin 'to dwell on chalk' Kalm's Lobelia ( Lobelia kalmii ) Bird`s-eye Primrose ( Primula mistassinica )

PowerPoint Presentation:

Lakeside daisy / Manitoulin Gold ( Tetraneuris herbacea ) C alcicole, C alciphyte or C alciphile T hrives in lime rich soil : Latin 'to dwell on chalk'

Geological History 5000 yrs ago: Marl Lake - Marlbanks:

Geological History 5000 yrs ago: Marl Lake - Marlbanks Marl lakes. Support C alciphile plants. Bicarbonate-rich, hard, water. Limy soil.

Geological History 5000 yrs ago: Marl Lake - Marlbanks:

Geological History 5000 yrs ago: Marl Lake - Marlbanks Kalm's Lobelia ( Lobelia kalmii ) Boneset ( Eupatorium perfoliatum ) Grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia glauca)

Alvar: Geology - Plant Summary:

Alvar : Geology - Plant Summary Low Calamint Geology Deposition of limeston / dolomite 450 million yrs ago Glaciation and lake levels form a lvar Lime c onditions Plant adaptation Calcium- and magnesium-tolerant plants Heat + drought tolerant plants

Glacier: Polished Rock - “Rock Desert”:

G lacier: Polished Rock - “Rock Desert” Glacia l erosion shapes land: special habitat for plants.

Rock Desert: Bristly Sarsaparilla (Aralia hispida):

Rock Desert : Bristly Sarsaparilla ( Aralia hispida ) Deep roots Narrow leaves

Rock Desert: Pearly Everlasting (Anapahlis margaritace):

Rock Desert : Pearly Everlasting ( Anapahlis margaritace ) D rought tolerant Narrow, silver leaves

Rock Desert: Lance-leaved Stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum):

Rock Desert : Lance-leaved Stonecrop ( Sedum lanceolatum ) Succulent : Photosynthesis Day: stomata close ( prevent water loss) Night: stomata open , CO2 enter s plant

Rock Desert: Pin Cherry (Prunus pensylvanica):

Rock Desert : Pin Cherry ( Prunus pensylvanica ) Full Sun Tolerates poor dry soil

Rock Desert: Common Juniper (Juniperus communis):

Rock Desert : Common Juniper ( Juniperus communis ) Full Sun Tolerates poor dry soil

“Rock Desert”: Geology - Plant Summary:

“ Rock Desert” : Geology - Plant Summary Geology Glacier creates rock desert Plant Response Full Sun Leaf design (narrow, silver) Deep tap roots Photosynthesis

Glacier: Kettle Lake: Special Geological Habitat - Special Plants:

G lacier: Kettle Lake: Special Geological Habitat - Special Plants Isolated, acidic, poor nutrients . Sedges, heaths, sphagnum moss . Carnivorous plants .

Bog – Carnivorous Bladderwort:

Bog – Carnivorous Bladderwort www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/plantid2/photopages/photo_uvulgariscloseup.html Root Traps capture water "insects".

Bog - Carnivorous Plants Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea):

Bog - Carnivorous Plants Pitcher Plant ( Sarracenia purpurea )

Bog - Carnivorous Plants Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea):

Leaves - “soup” + hairs Drowned insects Digestive enzymes Bog - Carnivorous Plants Pitcher Plant ( Sarracenia purpurea )

PowerPoint Presentation:

Bog - Carnivorous Plants I nsectivore Plant : Sundew ( Drosera rotundifolia ) Secretions Trap insects Nutrients

PowerPoint Presentation:

Geology Glaciation Kettle lake or depression Poor drainage S phagnum moss A cidic conditions Plant adaptation Carnivorous Bog: Geology - Plant Summary

Lake Algonquin Bottom: 10,000 - 4,000 years ago:

Lake Algonquin Bottom: 10,000 - 4,000 years ago http://home.cogeco.ca/~geoheritagenipissing/ Light blue = glacial lake discharge Dark blue - present water Special habitat for plants (Fertile soil)

Lake Algonquin Sediments = Fertile Soil:

Lake Algonquin Sediments = Fertile Soil

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Farms + Golf Courses?:

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Farms + Golf Courses? Flat, fertile land = lake bottom = farms and golf courses

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Farms?:

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Farms? Flat, fertile land = lake bottom = farm.

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Golf Courses?:

Lake bottom: Ancient Lake Deposits Fertile Soil: Where Are The Golf Courses? Flat, fertile land = lake bottom = golf course.

Jocko Point – Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Jocko Point – Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile deposits, periodic flooding.

Jocko Point: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Jocko Point: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile deposits, periodic flooding. Wake Robin ( Trillium erectum ) White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum )

Jocko Point: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Jocko Point: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile deposits, periodic flooding. Dutchman's Breeches ( Dicentra cucullaria ) Carolina Spring Beauty ( Claytonia Virginica )

Jocko Point: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat:

Jocko Point: Spring (Ephemeral) Flora Deciduous Forest Habitat Rich, fertile deposits, periodic flooding . Broad-leaved Toothwort ( Cardamine diphylla ) Trout Lily ( Erythronium americanum )

PowerPoint Presentation:

Geology Rifting Glaciation Ancient Lake Algonquin Lake sediments Fertile soil Plant adaptation Rapid blooming Ephemeral Deciduous Forest: Geology - Plant Summary White trillium ( Trillium grandiflorum )

Geological History, Habitat, Flora:

Geological History, Habitat, Flora Geological history Rock type Big faults Glacial history Melt water river flow L ake level

Geology Influences Location and Type of Wildflower Communities:

Geology Influence s Location and Type of Wildflower Communities Geological Habitats Landscape Plant Communities Geological Processes

Dr. Andy Fyon (Geology Hat) Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.facebook.com/OGSgeology or (Wildflower Hat) www.ontariowildflower.com www.facebook.com/Andy.wildflowers:

Dr. Andy Fyon (Geology Hat) Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.facebook.com/OGSgeology or (Wildflower Hat) www.ontariowildflower.com www.facebook.com/Andy.wildflowers E-mail: Andy.fyon@ontario.ca

Glaciers Weigh A Lot!:

G laciers Weigh A Lot! Weight of glacier depressed the Earth. Glacier melted, land rebounds up (isostatic rebound). Influenced lakes and rivers.

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