Life on and in the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants

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This presentation by Andy Fyon (Director, Ontario Geological Survey), illustrates the relationship between geolgy and associated plat communities on parts of Manitoulin Island, Ontari, Canada.

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Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants:

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants Andy Fyon and Derek Armstrong Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Friends of Misery Bay, Manitoulin Island, July 12, 2011

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Not horticulturists. Not experts on alvar flora. Flowering plants: hobby Derek Armstong is the real geologist. Prefer not to discuss medicinal or culinary uses of plants Tell a Story Don't have all the answers. Lots of questions – try together.

If the Power Goes Out…Please Remember This:

If the Power Goes Out…Please Remember This Manitoulin Island Alvar Manitoulin Gold ( Hymenoxys herbacea ) Geological forces and features influence types and distribution of plant communities BUT Geology is not the only factor

Story Outline:

1: Ontario Geological Survey (Sponsor) 2: Fossil plants and Earth history 3: Manitoulin flora context 4: Geological history - Manitoulin 5: Evidence - Floristic regions 6: Geological Influences on Flora Story Outline Early Saxifrage Brachiopod

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Ministry of Northern Development, Mines & Forestry 1. Ontario Geological Survey (Sponsor) Groundwater Landform, Habitat, Aggregate Mineral Resource Glacial deposits Rocks Geothermal Resource Environment, habitat, climate change Health + safety

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record:

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record “Trees”, ferns, horsetail appeared 450 million yrs ago Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia - 350 million yrs BP “Flowering” Plant ( Archaefructus sinensis) 125 million years old

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia, 350 My, (“Coal age”):

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia, 350 My, (“Coal age”) Calamites (300 My) ancestor of Horsetail ( Equisetum )

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia, 350 MYBP:

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins fossils, Nova Scotia, 350 MYBP Lycopod (300 My) ancestor of club moss ( Lycopodium )

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record Time: Fossil “Flowering” Plant (Archaefructus sinensis) - 125 million years old:

2. Fossil Plants and Geological Record Time: Fossil “Flowering” Plant ( Archaefructus sinensis) - 12 5 million years old Evolutionary step to flowering plants. No petals. Seeds protected by closed fruits.

3. Manitoulin Endemics, Disjuncts, and Calciphiles:

3. Manitoulin Endemics, Disjuncts, and Calciphiles Endemic: unique to a geographic location and found nowhere else. Disjunct: Part of the range of a species that is disconnected from its contiguous range. A disjunct population. Calciphile: plant that thrives in calcareous soil. Manitoulin - Bruce = 95% of global range.

3. Manitoulin Flora - Forest Regions:

3. Manitoulin Flora - Forest Regions Arctic Tundra Taiga - Lowlands Boreal Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Prairie Deciduous Newmaster et al. 1997

3. Manitoulin Plants: 8 of 9 Floristic Regions:

3. Manitoulin Plants: 8 of 9 Floristic Regions Arctic Cordilleran Boreal Prairie Northern Mixed Forest Great Lake – St Lawrence Deciduous Forest Maritime Atlantic Coastal Plains Why??? Geological history?

4. Geological History - Manitoulin Island:

4. Geological History - Manitoulin Island Manitoulin Gold, Misery Bay

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Manitoulin area rocks Glacial deposits

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) 5 km

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Niagara Escarpment “s”

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Ordovician escarpment at Bridal Veil Falls

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Precambrian quartzites Unconformity Ordovician limestones Ordovician shales Silurian dolostones

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Bedrock Geology of Manitoulin Island

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La Cloche Mountains (Precambrian quartzites)

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Paleozoic (Shadow Lake Fm) / Precambrian unconformity (arrows), Highway 6, Great La Cloche Island

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Ordovician Fossils ( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Receptaculites (algae) “sunflower coral” Plan view Cross sectional view brachiopod crinoid stem bryozoan Nautiloid

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Ordovician Sea ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

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Paleogeography (www.scotese.com)

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Silurian dolostones reef with oil fossiliferous

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Manitouwaning barrier reef Oil seeping from coral and cracks

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Silurian (Niagara) Escarpments – “Cup and Saucer” Amabel Formation (cup) Fossil Hill Formation (saucer) St. Edmund Formation (saucer)

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stromatoporoids Silurian Fossils brachiopods chain coral corals stromatoporoid

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Silurian Sea ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

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Paleogeography (www.scotese.com)

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( from Coniglio et al. 2006) Manitoulin area rocks Glacial deposits

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Glacial Ice Coverage ~ 20,000 bp ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Glacially striated bedrock surface:

Glacially striated bedrock surface joint (natural fracture) striations glacial striations

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organic layer beach deposit glacial till

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Very high lake levels after glacial retreat ~11,000 years bp ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Lake Algonquin gravel beach:

Lake Algonquin gravel beach Cup and Saucer Pit

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Low post-glacial lake levels ~10,000 years bp ( from Coniglio et al. 2006) land bridge

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High post-glacial lake levels ~5,000 years bp ( from Coniglio et al. 2006)

Bedrock surface eroded by receding Lake Nipissing :

Bedrock surface eroded by receding Lake Nipissing

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5. Geological History and Plant Communities on Manitoulin False Pennyroyal Maidenhair Spleenwort

What About Manitoulin Plants and Floristic Regions + Endemics?:

What About Manitoulin Plants and Floristic Regions + Endemics? Arctic Cordilleran Boreal Prairie Northern Mixed Forest Great Lake – St Lawrence E. Deciduous Forest Maritime Atlantic Coastal Plains Why??? Geological history?

Arctic – Cordilleran – Boreal Grass-of-Parnassus + Wild Chives + Alaska Rein Orchid:

Arctic – Cordilleran – Boreal Grass-of-Parnassus + Wild Chives + Alaska Rein Orchid

Prairie Cylindric blazing star + Seneca Snakeroot + Early Buttercup + Prairie smoke:

Prairie Cylindric blazing star + Seneca Snakeroot + Early Buttercup + Prairie smoke

Northern Mixed – Great Lakes St. Lawrence - Endemic:

Northern Mixed – Great Lakes St. Lawrence - Endemic Ram`s Head Orchid ( Cypripedium arietinum ) Dwarf Lake Iris ( Iris lacustris ) Manitoulin Gold ( Hymenoxys herbacea ) Hill`s Thistle ( Cirsium hillii ) Pitcher`s Thistle

Eastern Deciduous - Carolinian:

Eastern Deciduous - Carolinian Canada Violet ( Viola canadensis ) White rattlesnake-root ( Prenanthes alba )

Coastal Maritime:

Coastal Maritime Sea-rocket ( Cakile edentula ) Beach Pea ( Lathyrus japonicus )

Calciphile Plant Species:

Calciphile Plant Species Sticky False-Asphodel ( Tofieldia glutinosa ) Fringed Gentian ( Gentiana procera ) Bird`s-eye Primrose ( Primula mistassinica ) Kalm`s St. John`s-wort ( Hypericum kalmianum ) Kalm`s St. John`s-wort ( Hypericum kalmianum )

Floristic Representation - Manitoulin:

Floristic Representation - Manitoulin Why? - Geological history? Arctic, Boreal, Cordilleran Prairie Great Lake – St Lawrence, Northern Deciduous Forest Eastern Deciduous - Carolinian Maritime Endemic Calciphiles

6: Arctic Flora – Tundra at Glacier Front:

6: Arctic Flora – Tundra at Glacier Front

6: Arctic Flora – Steps Beyond Glacier Front:

6: Arctic Flora – Steps Beyond Glacier Front Mountain Goldenrod (S. Simplex) Artemisia

6: Boreal + Endemic Floristic Elements – Spruce Tundra Parkland Near Glacier:

6: Boreal + Endemic Floristic Elements – Spruce Tundra Parkland Near Glacier

6: Western Floristic Elements - Prairie:

6: Western Floristic Elements - Prairie Prairie, Alberta Cylindric Blazing Star ( Liatris cylindracea )

6: Maritime Floristic Elements – Marine History:

6: Maritime Floristic Elements – Marine History Beach Pea ( Lathyrus japonicus ) Beach Pea, Newfoundland Marine Eyles 2002

6: Southern Floristic Elements – Land bridge – 10,000 Years ago:

6: Southern Floristic Elements – Land bridge – 10,000 Years ago White rattlesnake-root ( Prenanthes alba ) Eyles 2002 Northward migration of southern species

Summary 13,000 years ago:

Summary 13,000 years ago Harsh cold climate around melting glacier. Manitoulin tundra & flora. Glacier

Summary 8,000 years ago:

Summary 8,000 years ago Warming climate around melting glacier. Alpine, arctic, boreal, prairie, southern, endemics coexist along ice-front as the glacier melted.

6: Possible Landscape as Glacier Retreated:

6: Possible Landscape as Glacier Retreated Migration of northern + western species. Tundra, boreal, prairie, coastal, southern, endemics coexist along ice-front as the glacier melted. Migration of coastal and southern species.

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants:

Life on, and in, the Rocks: Manitoulin Geology and Flowering Plants Andy Fyon and Derek Armstrong Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Friends of Misery Bay, Manitoulin Island, August 24, 2010

Dr. Andy Fyon Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.ontariogeologicalsurvey.ca (www.ontariowildflower.com) andy.fyon@ontario.ca Derek Armstrong Geoscientist, Ontario Geological Survey derek.armstrong@ontario.ca :

Dr. Andy Fyon Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.ontariogeologicalsurvey.ca (www.ontariowildflower.com) andy.fyon@ontario.ca Derek Armstrong Geoscientist, Ontario Geological Survey derek.armstrong@ontario.ca

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