Four Billion Years: Geology, Habitat and Flowering Plants

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Four Billion Years: Geology, Habitat and Flowering Plants:

Four Billion Years: Geology, Habitat and Flowering Plants Dr. Andy Fyon, Director, Ontario Geological Survey, Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry, Sudbury, Ontario “Ontario at, and beneath, Your Feet ” Ontario Horticultural Association July 16, 2011

Slide 2:

OHA - Andy Fyon 2 Won’t discuss medicinal or culinary uses Not horticulturist or botanist. Not expert on flora. Flowering plants: hobby. Am a geologist. Disclaimer

What Did Andy Fyon Say?:

What Did Andy Fyon Say? Manitoulin Island Alvar Kalm`s St. John`s-wort ( Hypericum kalmianum ) Geological forces and geological features influence types and distribution of plant communities. BUT Geology is not the only factor.

Slide 4:

4 Sponsor's Word: Ontario Geological Survey Ministry Northern Development, Mines & Forestry Groundwater Landform, Habitat, Aggregate Mineral Resource Glacial deposits Rocks Geothermal Resource Environment, climate change, health + safety economic development, planning

Ontario Geology Maps:

Ontario Geology Maps Different rocks, recent glacial deposits, create a variety of geological habitats. Ontario Rocks Ontario Glacial Deposits

A Little Geology:

A Little Geology Geological forces shape Earth

Geology and Habitat:

Geology and Habitat Geological forces shape Earth Geological forces and features influence habitats Alvar, Manitoulin Island Old Beaches, Hudson Bay

Habitat and Plant Communities:

Habitat and Plant Communities Geological forces shape Earth Geological forces and features influence habitats Habitats sustain specific plant communities

Geology, Habitat and Plant Communities:

Geology, Habitat and Plant Communities Geological forces shape Earth Geological forces and features influence habitats Habitats sustain plant communities Geological forces and geological features influence types and distribution of plant communities Manitoulin Island Alvar Manitoulin Gold ( Hymenoxys herbacea )

Geologist “Think”:

Geologist “Think” Process (The Earth Moved) Time (A Very Long Time) Geological Feature Plant Community Lupin, Mountain aven, Moss Campion

Geologist “Think” - Rock Cycle:

Geologist “Think” - Rock Cycle The-rock-cycle.blogspot.com Weathering / erosion Weathering / erosion Compaction / cementation Heat / pressure Weathering / erosion Melting Melting Cooling Heat / pressure

Geological Process: Igneous – Rocks Born of Fire:

OHA - Andy Fyon 12 Geological Process: Igneous – Rocks Born of Fire US Geological Survey

Slide 13:

Geological Process: Sedimentary rock formed from ancient life remains, in an ancient warm ocean, 500 million years ago Coniglio et al. 2006

Slide 14:

OHA - Andy Fyon 14 Geological Process: Sedimentary Rock, Warm Ocean, From Ancient Life Brachiopod Crinoid stem Bryozoan

Geological Process: Erosion – Clastic Sedimentary Rock:

Geological Process: Erosion – Clastic Sedimentary Rock

Geological Process: Metamorphism – Cooked Rock!:

OHA - Andy Fyon 16 Geological Process: Metamorphism – Cooked Rock!

Geological Process: Glaciation Ontario Chills out!:

Geological Process: Glaciation Ontario Chills out! Alpine Glacier – British Columbia Earth glaciation 2 billion years ago 600 million years ago 250 million years ago 1 million years ago 20,000 years ago Covered almost all of Canada Ron Blakey, NAU Geology - Jan.ucc.nau.edu

Geological Time – Ancient Plants:

Geological Time – Ancient Plants Earth formed: 4,600 Ma Trees, ferns, horsetails: 420 Ma Flowering Plants: 125 Ma (Archaefructus sinensis) Joggins Trees / ferns: 300 Ma Humans: 0.1 Ma

Geological Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins, Nova Scotia, 350 Million years, (“Coal age”):

Geological Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins, Nova Scotia, 350 Million years, (“Coal age”) Calamites (300 My) ancestor of Horsetail ( Equisetum )

Geological Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins, Nova Scotia, 350 Million years:

Geological Time: Fossil Plants: Joggins, Nova Scotia, 350 Million years Lycopod (300 My) ancestor of club moss ( Lycopodium )

Geological Time: Fossil “Flowering” Plant (Archaefructus sinensis) - 125 Million years:

Geological Time: Fossil “Flowering” Plant ( Archaefructus sinensis) - 12 5 Million years Evolutionary step to flowering plants. No petals. Seeds protected by closed fruits.

Geological Process, Features and Plants:

Geological Process, Features and Plants What is the meaning of life? The theoretical question that unifies the scenes in the Monty Python film. (Terry Jones, 1983) Our theoretical unifying question for the rest of this talk? How are geological processes, features, and flora linked?

Geological Process: Igneous Rocks and Plants:

Geological Process: Igneous Rocks and Plants US Geological Survey Result: Different rocks feed plants differently.

Geological Process: Erosion – sedimentary rock:

Geological Process: Erosion – sedimentary rock Result: Adapted plants with tap roots in this habitat. Roseroot / King's Crown ( Rhodiola rosea / Sedum rosea)

Slide 25:

Geological Process: Carbonate-rich Sedimentary Rock, Limestone + Calciphiles Brachiopod Crinoid stem Bryozoan Result: Calciphile plant habitat Calciphile Large yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripediun pubescens)

Slide 26:

Karst dissolved rock Geological Process: Weathering - Karst Columbine ( Aquilegia canadensis ) Manitoulin Gold ( Hymenoxys herbacea ) Result: Plant habitat in cracks in hostile area.

Geological Process: Geological Glaciation and Plant Habitats:

Geological Process: Geological Glaciation and Plant Habitats Result: Landscape Different landforms, habitats, plant communities Peter Barnett, OGS

Slide 28:

Geological Process: Stress Release Cracks Result: Plant habitat in hostile area.

Slide 29:

Geological Process: Frost Action Result: Plant habitat in hostile area.

Now for Something Completely Different… Let’s Look at Flora in Four Extreme Geological Habitats:

Now for Something Completely Different… Let’s Look at Flora in Four Extreme Geological Habitats Extreme natural habitats Wild Sweet Pea ( Hedysarum mackenzii ) Domestic garden habitats

Fort Severn Area, Hudson Bay:

31 Fort Severn Area, Hudson Bay

Glaciation, Rising Land, Hudson Bay Lowland Tundra, and Plant Communities:

32 Glaciation, Rising Land, Hudson Bay Lowland Tundra, and Plant Communities Glaciation ended about 5,000 years ago. Ron Blakey, NAU Geology - Jan.ucc.nau.edu

Process: Glaciation: Sinking and Rising Land:

Process: Glaciation: Sinking and Rising Land Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada Glacier melts: land bounces back (Isostatic rebound) Heavy glacier depresses the Earth (Subsidence)

Ancient “Raised” Storm Beaches, Hudson Bay Lowland, Plant Communities:

Ancient “Raised” Storm Beaches, Hudson Bay Lowland, Plant Communities Rising land Hudson Bay Raised storm beaches <7000 years old

Hudson Bay, New Beach, Plants Fort Severn:

Hudson Bay, New Beach, Plants Fort Severn Storm beaches / bars Early plant stabilizers Sea-beach Sandwort ( Honchenya peploides ) + Sea Lime Grass ( Elymus arenarius ) Halophyte: tolerate salt water Sea Lime Grass ( Elymus arenarius )

Hudson Bay, Behind the Beach, “Salt Marsh”:

Hudson Bay, Behind the Beach, “Salt Marsh” Egede’s Cinquefoil ( Potentilla egedii ) + Arctic Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum arcticum ) Seaside Buttercup ( Ranunculus cymbalaria ) Seaside Plantain ( Plantago juncoides ) Marsh Ragwort (Senecio congestus)

Hudson Bay Lowland Tundra Stabilized Beach to Spruce Community:

Hudson Bay Lowland Tundra Stabilized Beach to Spruce Community Alpine Bistort ( Polygonum viviparum ) Mountain Aven ( Dryas integrifolia ) Broad-leaved Fireweed ( Epilobium latifolium) Greenland Primrose ( Primual egalikensis)

Hudson Bay Lowland Tundra Stabilized Beach to Spruce Community:

Hudson Bay Lowland Tundra Stabilized Beach to Spruce Community Franklin`s Lady`s Slipper or Northern Lady`s Slipper or Sparrow-egg Lady`s Slipper ( Cypripedium passerinum ) Purple Paintbrush ( Castilleja raupii ) Sweet Vetch ( Hedysarium mackenzii )

Geology, Bog-Fen Plants:

Geology, Bog-Fen Plants Glacial retreat Drainage / stagnant water Physical / chemical conditions Nutrients Plants Floodplain Bogs / Kettles Kame

Geology, Bog-Fen Plants:

Geology, Bog-Fen Plants

“Carnivorous” Bog-Fen Plant: Pitcher Plant:

OHA - Andy Fyon 41 “Carnivorous” Bog-Fen Plant: Pitcher Plant

“Carnivorous” Bog-Fen Plant: Pitcher Plant:

“Carnivorous” Bog-Fen Plant: Pitcher Plant Leaf “soup” Hairs Insects Nutrients

“Carnivorous” Bog-Fen Plant: Sundew:

“Carnivorous” Bog-Fen Plant: Sundew Secretions Insects Nutrients

Hostile Geology + Plants Manitoulin Alvar:

Hostile Geology + Plants Manitoulin Alvar Limestone / dolomite Open Little or no soil Alkaline Low nutrient Sunlight Temperature moderated by proximity to lake Spring flooding Summer drought

Near North and Southern Ontario Alvars:

Precambrian Shield: >2 Billion years old Limestone alvar: <0.4 Billion year old Near North and Southern Ontario Alvars

Alvar Calciphile Plant Species:

Alvar Calciphile Plant Species Sticky False-Asphodel ( Tofieldia glutinosa ) Fringed Gentian ( Gentiana procera ) Bird`s-eye Primrose ( Primula mistassinica ) Kalm`s St. John`s-wort ( Hypericum kalmianum ) Kalm`s Lobelia ( Lobelia kalmii ) Manitoulin Gold ( Hymenoxys acaulis )

Alvar Calciphiles - Geological Influence:

Alvar Calciphiles - Geological Influence Rock geology (400 million years ago) Rock chemistry Alvar habitat  Calciphile plant community False Pennyroyal Manitoulin Gold + Columbine Alvar – Ordovician Fossil

Hostile Geology + Plants Gros Morne Tableland Barrens, Newfoundland UNESCO World Heritage Site:

Hostile Geology + Plants Gros Morne Tableland Barrens, Newfoundland UNESCO World Heritage Site

Hostile Geology + Plants Gros Morne UNESCO World Heritage Site:

Hostile Geology + Plants Gros Morne UNESCO World Heritage Site Ultramafic rock – tough on plants!!! No K, N, P High nickel, copper, magnesium Vegetation No vegetation

Gros Morne Tablelands Geological Landscape and Specialized Plants:

Gros Morne Tablelands Geological Landscape and Specialized Plants Round-leaved Sundew ( Drosera rotundifolia ) and Common Butterwort ( Pinguicula vulgaris )

Gros Morne Tablelands Geology and Specialized Alpine Plants:

Gros Morne Tablelands Geology and Specialized Alpine Plants Moss Campion ( Silene acaulis ) Sea Thrift (Armeria maritima)

Gros Morne Tablelands Geology and Specialized “Serpentine-tolerant” Plants:

Gros Morne Tablelands Geology and Specialized “Serpentine-tolerant” Plants Serpentine stitchwort ( Minuartia marcescens ) ,Alpine campion / Alpine catchfly ( Silene suecica ) formerly ( Lychnis alpina ): Copper indicator

Gros Morne Tablelands – Serpentine-tolerant Flora - Geological Influence:

Gros Morne Tablelands – Serpentine-tolerant Flora - Geological Influence Ultramafic rock Rock chemistry: High nickel, copper, magnesium Low nutrients: K, P, N Tablelands barrens habitat  serpentine-tolerant plant community Does lichen grow on all rocks?

Geology and Plants:

Geology and Plants Habitats Landforms Plant Communities Geological Processes Face of Earth Creates habitats Influences plant communities

Dr. Andy Fyon Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.ontariogeologicalsurvey.ca andy.fyon@ontario.ca (www.ontariowildflower.com):

Dr. Andy Fyon Director, Ontario Geological Survey www.ontariogeologicalsurvey.ca andy.fyon@ontario.ca (www.ontariowildflower.com)

authorStream Live Help