There are many approaches to problem solving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involved. Problem solving is defined as a systematic approach to defining the problem (question or situation that presents uncertainty, perplexity or difficulty) and creating a vast number of possible solutions without judging these solutions.
5 points on defining the problem and 5 points on brainstorming
13 points on a scientific approach to data, solution, and reflection
4 points on learning skills and 5 points on understanding the problem
6 points on past experience and future problems plus 5 points on learning from the past
7 primary issues for problem solvers and 8 active listening techniques
6 points on group or individual brainstorming
4 quotes on what is decision making and 10 factors for making effective decisions
7 points on styles and approaches plus 6 C’s of decision making
10 traps in an inherent system and 7 points on decision making methods
6 points on vertical thinking and 7 points on lateral thinking
7 “creative thinking” environments and 10 points on adaptors and innovators
9 points on collaborative problem solving and 4 requirements of group problem solving
8 points on triggers for inspiration and 5 points on sacred cows
20 points on 4 modes of problems solving and 16 points on S.W.O.T. analysis
Problem-solving Cycle / (Pages 10-14)
Collaborative Problem-solving / (Page 114)
Techniques / (Pages 138-139)

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slide 1:

PROBLEM SOLVING
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slide 2:

2
Program Objectives
1 of 2
Problem Solving
Be prepared to actively listen in order to accurately
understand the problem.
Know how to take the first step in solving a problem.
Clarify and define the problem.
Understand the usefulness of collaborative
problem-solving and decision-making.
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slide 3:

3
Program Objectives
2 of 2
Problem Solving
Examine different decision making models.
Utilize creativity in the problem- solving/decision-
making process.
Plan practice and problem-solve while making decisions
through case studies role playing and group discussions.
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slide 4:

10
Problem-solving Cycle
1 of 7
Problem Solving
Identify the
problem.
Understand
the problem.
Organize the
information.
Allocate
resources.
Monitor.
Check and
Evaluate.
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slide 5:

11
Problem-solving Cycle
2 of 7
Problem Solving
1
Identify the problem:
You must be aware of the problem to be able to work on it.
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slide 6:

12
Problem-solving Cycle
3 of 7
Problem Solving
2
Understand the problem:
You must understand every aspect of the
problem in order to figure out the best way to solve it.
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slide 7:

13
Problem-solving Cycle
4 of 7
Problem Solving
3
Organize the information:
You must organize the information effectively.
• Separate the most important information.
• Discard the irrelevant information.
• Use the organized information to find a strategy.
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slide 8:

14
Problem-solving Cycle
5 of 7
Problem Solving
4
Allocate Resources:
Decide which resources can be
used and to what extent they can be used.
Resources may include:
• Time.
• Money.
• Equipment.
• Space.
• Materials.
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slide 9:

15
Problem-solving Cycle
6 of 7
Problem Solving
5
Monitor:
Monitor the process to ensure that it is
effective. Reassess the process if it is not working.
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slide 10:

16
Problem-solving Cycle
7 of 7
Problem Solving
6
Check and Evaluate:
Check the solution and evaluate it.
• Is the solution correct
• Was it solved in the most effective way
• What could have been done differently
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slide 11:

20
How Do You Solve Problems
Problem Solving
What processes do
you use
Can you explain the
processes you use to
another person
Do these processes
vary depending upon
the problem
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slide 12:

22
Expert Problem-solvers
Problem Solving
Have a better memory for relevant details in the problem.
Classify problems according to their underlying principles.
Use well-established procedures.
Work forward towards a goal rather than backwards.
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slide 13:

23
Problem-solving Requirements
Problem Solving
Content Understanding
Problem Solving
Self - regulation Communication
Collaboration
Learning
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26
Understanding the Process:
How to Solve it
1 of 8
Problem Solving
Engage.
1
Understand the problem. 2
Plan a procedure to solve
the problem.
3
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slide 16:

Collect the data and the
knowledge required.
4
Select the preferred solution. 5
Reflect on the process. 6
27
Understanding the Process:
How to Solve it
2 of 8
Problem Solving
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slide 17:

28
Understanding the Process:
How to Solve it
3 of 8
Problem Solving
1
Engage: I want to and I can.
• Read the problem and all the information.
• Listen.
• Learn about the situation that poses the problem.
• Use motivation.
• Overcome panic.
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slide 18:

29
Understanding the Process:
How to Solve it
4 of 8
Problem Solving
2
Understand the problem.
Put in the time to define the problem:
• Discuss.
• Ask questions.
• Visualize.
• Restate the problem in your own words.
• Explain the problem to someone else.
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slide 19:

30
Understanding the Process:
How to Solve it
5 of 8
Problem Solving
3
Plan a procedure to solve the problem. Use:
• Prior experience.
• Data available.
• Content knowledge.
• Patterns.
• Estimation.
• Alternate solutions.
• Feasibility.
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slide 20:

34
Defining The Problem
Problem Solving
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Collect all the relevant information.
1
Clarify background issues.
2
Ask.
3
• What are the constraints
• Are there sub-problems that can be dealt with separately
• Can the problem now be formulated

slide 21:

35
Brainstorming
Problem Solving
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Brainstorm to
produce a wide
range of possible
solutions to the
problem.
1
Record uncritically – no
comments at this stage.
2
Use a group of
people.
3
Allow divergent
thinking.
4

slide 22:

36
Information That Is Required
Problem Solving
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A Scientific Approach
Conduct
experiments that
are carefully
designed
implemented and
controlled.
Collate the data
accumulated – are there
trends and relationships
that may help

slide 23:

38
Bringing Back The Data
Problem Solving
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Collect data and digest the information.
Presentation and critical thinking skills are required.
What criteria can be devised
A Scientific Approach

slide 24:

39
Do We Have a Preferred Solution
Problem Solving
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A Scientific Approach
Evaluate each possible solution in the light of these criteria.
Reject solutions that do not meet these criteria.
Judge solutions’ strengths and weaknesses.
Do we have one or two solutions that meet the criteria

slide 25:

40
Reflection
Problem Solving
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How efficient was the process
How could it be made more efficient next time
Were the problems in the definitions in finding the information or in understanding the information
How are critical faculties increasing
A Scientific Approach

slide 26:

41
Reflection
Problem Solving
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A Scientific Approach
Make tacit processes explicit.
Get managers/employees to talk about the problem.
Provide guided practice and ensure that the component procedures are learned.

slide 27:

42
Learning These Skills
Problem Solving
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Obtain the basic knowledge of the facts and the ways of doing things.
Metacognition:
Understand how
one uses what one
knows.
Heuristics:
Develop strategies and
techniques to find easier
approaches to related
problem.
A Can-Do Attitude:
This problem can be
solved positive
attitude.

slide 28:

63
A Group Perspective
Problem Solving
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The quality of a group’s decision depends on:
• If the people with the best ideas are the most influential.
• The behavior of the group’s leader.
• If there is a two-way initiative between the leader and group members.

slide 29:

66
Group or Individual: Brainstorming
1 of 2
Problem Solving
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Problem-solving skills will be discovered recognized and drawn upon within a group.
When there is a time limit individuals will be faster
Groups provide an opportunity for greater innovation.

slide 30:

72
Problem-solving Framework
2 of 4
Problem Solving
State the objectives.
4
Generate alternatives. 5
Select alternatives.
6
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slide 31:

73
Problem-solving Framework
3 of 4
Problem Solving
Plan for implementation.
7
Clarify the contract. 8
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slide 32:

74
Problem-solving Framework
4 of 4
Problem Solving
Design an action plan.
9
Evaluation and accountability. 10
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slide 33:

84
Making Effective Decisions
Problem Solving
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Perception. Goals.
Priority.
Values.
Acceptability. Demands.
Risk. Style.
Resources.
Judgment.

slide 34:

Construct. 1
Compile. 2
Collect. 3
Compare. 4
Consider. 5
Commit. 6
88
6 Cs of Decision Making
1 of 3
Problem Solving
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slide 35:

100
Types of Problems
Problem Solving
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A problem that has no solution.
A problem that has been correctly identified and
for which a solution is possible.
A problem for which a solution may be possible
yet not until the problem has been clarified.

slide 36:

101
What Different Processes Lead to Insight
Problem Solving
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Past responses are used to solve a current problem.
Problem can be seen as part of a larger system or reality.
Problem is formulated in a new way.
Past experience is ignored and mental blocks are overcome.

slide 37:

111
Adaptors: Strengths Weaknesses
3 of 4
Problem Solving
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Strengths:
Provide stability order and
continuity and maintain
group cohesion.
Weaknesses:
Can be too methodical
and conforming.

slide 38:

112
Innovators: Strengths Weaknesses
4 of 4
Problem Solving
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Strengths:
Help to challenge set
assumptions and accepted
theory and prevent
stagnation.
Weaknesses:
Can be too
undisciplined and
nonconforming.

slide 39:

118
Collaborative Problem Solving
1 of 6
Problem Solving
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Gather information
Generate ideas and proposals
Evaluate alternatives positively
Evaluate proposals critically
Assess the
condition of the
group

slide 40:

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