Problem Solving

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There are many approaches to problem solving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involved. Problem solving is defined as a systematic approach to defining the problem (question or situation that presents uncertainty, perplexity or difficulty) and creating a vast number of possible solutions without judging these solutions. 5 points on defining the problem and 5 points on brainstorming 13 points on a scientific approach to data, solution, and reflection 4 points on learning skills and 5 points on understanding the problem 6 points on past experience and future problems plus 5 points on learning from the past 7 primary issues for problem solvers and 8 active listening techniques 6 points on group or individual brainstorming 4 quotes on what is decision making and 10 factors for making effective decisions 7 points on styles and approaches plus 6 C’s of decision making 10 traps in an inherent system and 7 points on decision making methods 6 points on vertical thinking and 7 points on lateral thinking 7 “creative thinking” environments and 10 points on adaptors and innovators 9 points on collaborative problem solving and 4 requirements of group problem solving 8 points on triggers for inspiration and 5 points on sacred cows 20 points on 4 modes of problems solving and 16 points on S.W.O.T. analysis Problem-solving Cycle / (Pages 10-14) Collaborative Problem-solving / (Page 114) Techniques / (Pages 138-139)

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PROBLEM SOLVING readysetpresent.com

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2 Program Objectives 1 of 2 Problem Solving Be prepared to actively listen in order to accurately understand the problem. Know how to take the first step in solving a problem. Clarify and define the problem. Understand the usefulness of collaborative problem-solving and decision-making. readysetpresent.com

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3 Program Objectives 2 of 2 Problem Solving Examine different decision making models. Utilize creativity in the problem- solving/decision- making process. Plan practice and problem-solve while making decisions through case studies role playing and group discussions. readysetpresent.com

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10 Problem-solving Cycle 1 of 7 Problem Solving Identify the problem. Understand the problem. Organize the information. Allocate resources. Monitor. Check and Evaluate. readysetpresent.com

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11 Problem-solving Cycle 2 of 7 Problem Solving 1 Identify the problem: You must be aware of the problem to be able to work on it. readysetpresent.com

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12 Problem-solving Cycle 3 of 7 Problem Solving 2 Understand the problem: You must understand every aspect of the problem in order to figure out the best way to solve it. readysetpresent.com

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13 Problem-solving Cycle 4 of 7 Problem Solving 3 Organize the information: You must organize the information effectively. • Separate the most important information. • Discard the irrelevant information. • Use the organized information to find a strategy. readysetpresent.com

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14 Problem-solving Cycle 5 of 7 Problem Solving 4 Allocate Resources: Decide which resources can be used and to what extent they can be used. Resources may include: • Time. • Money. • Equipment. • Space. • Materials. readysetpresent.com

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15 Problem-solving Cycle 6 of 7 Problem Solving 5 Monitor: Monitor the process to ensure that it is effective. Reassess the process if it is not working. readysetpresent.com

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16 Problem-solving Cycle 7 of 7 Problem Solving 6 Check and Evaluate: Check the solution and evaluate it. • Is the solution correct • Was it solved in the most effective way • What could have been done differently readysetpresent.com

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20 How Do You Solve Problems Problem Solving What processes do you use Can you explain the processes you use to another person Do these processes vary depending upon the problem readysetpresent.com

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22 Expert Problem-solvers Problem Solving Have a better memory for relevant details in the problem. Classify problems according to their underlying principles. Use well-established procedures. Work forward towards a goal rather than backwards. readysetpresent.com

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23 Problem-solving Requirements Problem Solving Content Understanding Problem Solving Self - regulation Communication Collaboration Learning readysetpresent.com

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24 Problem-solving Requirements Problem Solving Content Understanding Domain – dependent problem – solving strategies Self - regulation Motivation Effort Self - efficacy Metagocnition Self - monitoring Planning readysetpresent.com

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26 Understanding the Process: How to Solve it 1 of 8 Problem Solving Engage. 1 Understand the problem. 2 Plan a procedure to solve the problem. 3 readysetpresent.com

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Collect the data and the knowledge required. 4 Select the preferred solution. 5 Reflect on the process. 6 27 Understanding the Process: How to Solve it 2 of 8 Problem Solving readysetpresent.com

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28 Understanding the Process: How to Solve it 3 of 8 Problem Solving 1 Engage: I want to and I can. • Read the problem and all the information. • Listen. • Learn about the situation that poses the problem. • Use motivation. • Overcome panic. readysetpresent.com

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29 Understanding the Process: How to Solve it 4 of 8 Problem Solving 2 Understand the problem. Put in the time to define the problem: • Discuss. • Ask questions. • Visualize. • Restate the problem in your own words. • Explain the problem to someone else. readysetpresent.com

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30 Understanding the Process: How to Solve it 5 of 8 Problem Solving 3 Plan a procedure to solve the problem. Use: • Prior experience. • Data available. • Content knowledge. • Patterns. • Estimation. • Alternate solutions. • Feasibility. readysetpresent.com

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34 Defining The Problem Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Collect all the relevant information. 1 Clarify background issues. 2 Ask. 3 • What are the constraints • Are there sub-problems that can be dealt with separately • Can the problem now be formulated

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35 Brainstorming Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Brainstorm to produce a wide range of possible solutions to the problem. 1 Record uncritically – no comments at this stage. 2 Use a group of people. 3 Allow divergent thinking. 4

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36 Information That Is Required Problem Solving readysetpresent.com A Scientific Approach Conduct experiments that are carefully designed implemented and controlled. Collate the data accumulated – are there trends and relationships that may help

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38 Bringing Back The Data Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Collect data and digest the information. Presentation and critical thinking skills are required. What criteria can be devised A Scientific Approach

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39 Do We Have a Preferred Solution Problem Solving readysetpresent.com A Scientific Approach Evaluate each possible solution in the light of these criteria. Reject solutions that do not meet these criteria. Judge solutions’ strengths and weaknesses. Do we have one or two solutions that meet the criteria

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40 Reflection Problem Solving readysetpresent.com How efficient was the process How could it be made more efficient next time Were the problems in the definitions in finding the information or in understanding the information How are critical faculties increasing A Scientific Approach

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41 Reflection Problem Solving readysetpresent.com A Scientific Approach Make tacit processes explicit. Get managers/employees to talk about the problem. Provide guided practice and ensure that the component procedures are learned.

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42 Learning These Skills Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Obtain the basic knowledge of the facts and the ways of doing things. Metacognition: Understand how one uses what one knows. Heuristics: Develop strategies and techniques to find easier approaches to related problem. A Can-Do Attitude: This problem can be solved positive attitude.

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63 A Group Perspective Problem Solving readysetpresent.com The quality of a group’s decision depends on: • If the people with the best ideas are the most influential. • The behavior of the group’s leader. • If there is a two-way initiative between the leader and group members.

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66 Group or Individual: Brainstorming 1 of 2 Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Problem-solving skills will be discovered recognized and drawn upon within a group. When there is a time limit individuals will be faster Groups provide an opportunity for greater innovation.

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72 Problem-solving Framework 2 of 4 Problem Solving State the objectives. 4 Generate alternatives. 5 Select alternatives. 6 readysetpresent.com

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73 Problem-solving Framework 3 of 4 Problem Solving Plan for implementation. 7 Clarify the contract. 8 readysetpresent.com

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74 Problem-solving Framework 4 of 4 Problem Solving Design an action plan. 9 Evaluation and accountability. 10 readysetpresent.com

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84 Making Effective Decisions Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Perception. Goals. Priority. Values. Acceptability. Demands. Risk. Style. Resources. Judgment.

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Construct. 1 Compile. 2 Collect. 3 Compare. 4 Consider. 5 Commit. 6 88 6 Cs of Decision Making 1 of 3 Problem Solving readysetpresent.com

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100 Types of Problems Problem Solving readysetpresent.com A problem that has no solution. A problem that has been correctly identified and for which a solution is possible. A problem for which a solution may be possible yet not until the problem has been clarified.

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101 What Different Processes Lead to Insight Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Past responses are used to solve a current problem. Problem can be seen as part of a larger system or reality. Problem is formulated in a new way. Past experience is ignored and mental blocks are overcome.

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111 Adaptors: Strengths Weaknesses 3 of 4 Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Strengths: Provide stability order and continuity and maintain group cohesion. Weaknesses: Can be too methodical and conforming.

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112 Innovators: Strengths Weaknesses 4 of 4 Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Strengths: Help to challenge set assumptions and accepted theory and prevent stagnation. Weaknesses: Can be too undisciplined and nonconforming.

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118 Collaborative Problem Solving 1 of 6 Problem Solving readysetpresent.com Gather information Generate ideas and proposals Evaluate alternatives positively Evaluate proposals critically Assess the condition of the group

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