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Horizontal Line: Horizontal Line Horizontal lines suggest a feeling of rest or repose because objects parallel to the earth are at rest. In this landscape, horizontal lines also help give a sense of space. The lines delineate sections of the landscape, which recede into space. They also imply continuation of the landscape beyond the picture plane to the left and right. Landscape with a Calm, Nicholas Poussin, 1650–1651Vertical Line: Vertical Line Vertical lines often communicate a sense of height because they are perpendicular to the earth, extending upwards towards the sky. In this church interior, vertical lines suggest spirituality, rising beyond human reach toward the heavens. The Choir and North Ambulatory of the Church of Saint Bavo, Haarlem Pieter Jansz. Saenredam Dutch November 1634Horizontal and vertical lines: Horizontal and vertical lines Horizontal and vertical lines used in combination communicate stability and solidity. Rectilinear forms with 90-degree angles are structurally stable. This stability suggests permanence and reliability. Cabinet, French, about 1785Diagonal lines: Diagonal lines Diagonal lines convey a feeling of movement. Objects in a diagonal position are unstable. Because they are neither vertical nor horizontal, they are either about to fall or are already in motion. The angles of the ship and the rocks on the shore convey a feeling of movement or speed in this stormy harbor scene. A Storm on the Mediterranean Coast, Claude-Joseph Vernet French, Paris, 1767 Oil on canvas 44 1/2 x 57 3/8 in. Diagonal Lines: Diagonal Lines In a two-dimensional composition, diagonal lines can also indicate depth through perspective. These diagonal lines pull the viewer visually into the image. For example, in this photograph the diagonal lines lead the eye into the space to the point where the lines converge. Attributed to Silas A. Holmes American, New York City, about 1855 Salt print Curve: Curve The curve of a line can convey energy. Soft, shallow curves recall the curves of the human body and often have a pleasing, sensual quality and a softening effect on the composition. The edge of the pool in this photograph gently leads the eye to the sculptures on the horizon Sharply curved or twisted lines can convey turmoil, chaos, and even violence. In this sculpture, the lines of the contorting bodies and the serpent help convey the intensity of the struggle against the snake's stranglehold. Eugène Atget French, Saint-Cloud, about 1915 - 1919 Albumen print Shape: Shape Shape has only height and width. Shape is usually, though not always, defined by line, which can provide its contour. In this image, rectangles and ovals dominate the composition. They describe the architectural details for an illusionist ceiling fresco. Charles de la Fosse French, about 1680 Pen, red chalk, watercolor, and gouacheForm: Form Form has depth as well as width and height. Three-dimensional form is the basis of sculpture, furniture, and decorative arts. Three-dimensional forms can be seen from more than one side, such as this sculpture of a rearing horse. Geometric shapes and forms: Geometric shapes and forms Geometric shapes and forms include mathematical, named shapes such as squares, rectangles, circles, cubes, spheres, and cones. Geometric shapes and forms are often man-made. However, many natural forms also have geometric shapes. This cabinet is decorated with designs of geometric shapes. Commode, Jean-François Oeben, about 1760 Organic shapes and forms: Organic shapes and forms Organic shapes and forms are typically irregular or asymmetrical. Organic shapes are often found in nature, but man-made shapes can also imitate organic forms. This wreath uses organic forms to simulate leaves and berries. Gold Wreath, Greek, 300–100 B.C. Space: Space Real space is three-dimensional. Space in a work of art refers to a feeling of depth or three dimensions. It can also refer to the artist's use of the area within the picture plane. The area around the primary objects in a work of art is known as negative space, while the space occupied by the primary objects is known as positive space.Positive and Negative Space: Positive and Negative Space The relationship of positive to negative space can greatly affect the impact of a work of art. In this drawing, the man and his shadow occupy the positive space, while the white space surrounding him is the negative space. The disproportionate amount of negative space accentuates the figure's vulnerability and isolation. Three Dimensional Space: Three Dimensional Space The perfect illusion of three-dimensional space in a two-dimensional work of art is something that many artists, such as Pieter Saenredam, labored to achieve. The illusion of space is achieved through perspective drawing techniques and shading. Saint Bavo, Haarlem, Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, 1634 Color: Color Light reflected off objects. Color has three main characteristics: hue (red, green, blue, etc.), value (how light or dark it is), and intensity (how bright or dull it is). Colors can be described as warm (red, yellow) or cool (blue, gray), depending on which end of the color spectrum they fall. Value: Value Value describes the brightness of color. Artists use color value to create different moods. Dark colors in a composition suggest a lack of light, as in a night or interior scene. Dark colors can often convey a sense of mystery or foreboding. Light colors often describe a light source or light reflected within the composition. In this painting, the dark colors suggest a night or interior scene. The artist used light colors to describe the light created by the candle flame. Intensity: Intensity Intensity describes the purity or strength of a color. Bright colors are undiluted and are often associated with positive energy and heightened emotions. Dull colors have been diluted by mixing with other colors and create a sedate or serious mood. In this image the artist captured both the seriousness and the joy of the scene with the dull gray stone interior and the bright red drapery. The Annunciation, Dieric Bouts, 1450–1455 Texture: Texture The surface quality of an object that we sense through touch. All objects have a physical texture. Artists can also convey texture visually in two dimensions. In a two-dimensional work of art, texture gives a visual sense of how an object depicted would feel in real life if touched: hard, soft, rough, smooth, hairy, leathery, sharp, etc. In three-dimensional works, artists use actual texture to add a tactile quality to the work. Surface Texture: Surface Texture The surface of this writing desk is metallic and hard. The hard surface is functional for an object that would have been used for writing. The smooth surface of the writing desk reflects light, adding sparkle to this piece of furniture. Desk, French, 1692–1700 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.