substance abuse BASIC

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substance abuse disorder:

substance abuse disorder By: ANDREA DONITTA. G M.SC(N) II YR DEPT OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSING

introduction:

introduction

definitions:

definitions Substance The term Substance is used in reference to any drug, medication or toxin that shares the potential for abuse. Addiction Addiction i s a physiologic and Psychologic dependence on alcohol or other drugs of abused that affects the central nervous system in such a away that withdrawal symptoms are experienced when the substance is discontinued.

Cont…:

Cont… Abuse refers to maladaptive pattern of substance use that impairs health in a broad sense. Dependence refers to certain physiological and psychological phenomena induced by the repeated taking of a substance.

Cont…:

Cont… Tolerance is a state in which after repeated administration a drug produces a decreased effect or increasing doses are required to produce the same effect. Withdrawal state is a group of signs and symptoms recurring when a drug is reduced in amount or withdrawn, which last for a limited time. The nature of the withdrawal state is related to the class of substance used.

Classification of mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use – icd 10:

Classification of mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use – icd 10

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ICD classification of mental and behaviour disorders due to psychoactive substance use. F10 – mental and behavioural disorders due to use of alcohol. F11 – mental and behavioural disorders due to use of opioids . F12 – mental and behavioural disorders due to use of cannabis. F13 – mental and behavioural disorders due to use of sedatives or hypnotics. F14 – mental and behavioural disorders due to use of cocaine. F16 – mental and behavioural disorders due to use of hallucinogens.

Causes of substance abuse:

Causes of substance abuse Genetic theories Neurological theories Psychological theories Behavioral theories Social theories

Types of substance related disorders:

Types of substance related disorders

i. Substance use disorders:

i . Substance use disorders I(a). Substance abuse DSM IV TR Criteria for Substance Abuse It is manifested by one (or more) of the following occurring within a 12-month period. 1. Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfil major role obligations at work, school or home. 2. Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (e.g. driving an automobile or operating a machine). 3. Recurrent substance related legal problems (e.g. arrests for disorderly conduct). 4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance .

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I(b). Substance Dependence DSM IV TR Criteria for Substance Dependence 1 . Evidence of tolerance as defined by one of the following. A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effects or markedly diminished effects with continued use of the same amount of the substance. 2. Evidence of withdrawal symptoms as manifested by one of the following: the characteristic withdrawal symptom for the substance or the same substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. 3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended. 4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use.

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5. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance (e.g. visiting multiple doctors or driving long distances), use the substance (e.g. chain smoking) or recover from its effects. 6. Important social, occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use. 7. The substance used is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (e.g. current cocaine use despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption).

ii. Substance induced disorders:

ii. Substance induced disorders II(a). Substance Intoxification : DSM IV TR Criteria for Substance Intoxification 1. The development of a reversible substance – specific syndrome caused by recent indigestion of a substance. 2. Clinically significant maladaptive behaviour or psychological changes that are due to the effect of the substance on the CNS and develop during or shortly after use of the substance. 3. The symptoms are not due to a general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

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II(b). Substance Withdrawal DSM IV TR Criteria for Substance Withdrawal 1. The development of a reversible substance specific syndrome caused by cessation of (or reduction) heavy and prolonged substance use. 2. The substance specific syndrome causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning. 3. The symptoms are not caused by general medical condition and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

Classes of psychoactive substances:

Classes of psychoactive substances

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1. Alcohol 2. Amphetamines and other sympathomimetics . 3. Caffeine and other stimulants. 4. Cannabis. 5. Cocaine. 6. Hallucinogens for example LSD, phencyclidine. 7. Inhalants. 8. Nicotine. 9. Opioids . 10. Phencyclidine (PCI) and related substances. 11. Sedatives hypnotics or anxiolytics for example barbiturates.

Predisposing factors:

Predisposing factors

Nursing care plan:

Nursing care plan Ineffective denial related to underdeveloped ego as evidenced by statements indicating no problem with substance use. Ineffective coping related to inadequate coping skills and weak ego as evidenced by use of substances as coping mechanisms.

Cont…:

Cont… Imbalanced nutrition, less than body requirements related to use of substances of instead of eating as evidences by loss of weight, pale conjunctiva and mucous membrane, poor skin turgor , electrolyte imbalance and anemia .

Theory application:

Theory application

Journal abstract:

Journal abstract Response of heavy drinking voluntary and mandated college students to peer- led brief motivational intervention addressing alcohol use

conclusion:

conclusion

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Eventhogh the exact aetiology of the substance abuse is not known, it is sure that the interaction between the various elements forms a complex collection of determinants that influence a person’s susceptibility to abuse substances.

Thank you:

Thank you

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