BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS

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Presentation Description

Biosynthesis of fatty acids is part of fatty acid metabolism, a topic covered mostly under the subject title of biochemistry. The other part of the fatty acid metabolism is beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

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Presentation Transcript

BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS : 

BIOSYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS Aneesh Nair University of Madras aneesh.biotech@gmail.com

What are Fatty Acids??? : 

What are Fatty Acids??? Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids R-CO-OH Most common component of lipids in body.

Classification : 

Classification Total No. of C atoms: Even Chain Odd Chain Length of Hydrocarbon Chain: Short Chain Medium Chain Long Chain Nature of Hydrocarbon Chain: Saturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated Fatty Acids Branched Chain Fatty Acids Hydroxy Fatty Acids

Fatty Acid Synthesis : 

Fatty Acid Synthesis de novo pathway Lynen’s Spiral Not a reversal of Fatty Acid Oxidation

History : 

History Feodor Lynen (1911 – 1979) Nobel Prize in 1964

Localisation : 

Localisation Cytosol Hepatocytes & Adipocytes – High Level Liver – Primary Site in Humans.

Functions : 

Functions Convert dietary Carbohydrates & excess amino acids into TAG. Produce membrane lipid components Produce precursors of eicosanoid lipid hormones

Fatty Acid Synthase Complex : 

Fatty Acid Synthase Complex Multienzyme complex 6 enzymes 1 Non Enzyme Protein – ACP Mol. Wt = 540 kDa

Fatty Acid Synthase Complex : 

Fatty Acid Synthase Complex

Reactions : 

Reactions Generates Palmitate (16 C) Sequential addition of 2 C. 8 acetyl-CoA + 7ATP + 14NADPH + H+ + H20  Palmitate + 7ADP + 7Pi + 14NADP+ + 8CoASH

Sources of Cytosolic Acetyl CoA : 

Sources of Cytosolic Acetyl CoA Glucose Carbon Skeletons of excess amino acids

Sources of NADPH : 

Sources of NADPH Pentose Phosphate Pathway Transhydrogenation Pathway

Slide 14: 

Lynen’s Cycle

Reaction Catalysed by Acetyl CoA Carboxylase : 

Reaction Catalysed by Acetyl CoA Carboxylase

1. Activation of Acetyl CoA : 

1. Activation of Acetyl CoA

2. Activation of Malonyl CoA : 

2. Activation of Malonyl CoA

3. Condensation : 

3. Condensation

4. Reduction : 

4. Reduction

5.Dehydration : 

5.Dehydration

6.Reduction : 

6.Reduction

7. Hydrolysis : 

7. Hydrolysis Palmitoyl-ACP + H2O  Palmitate + ACP-SH

Modification Reactions : 

Modification Reactions Fatty Acid Chain Elongation Palmitoyl-CoA + 2NADPH + H+ + Malonyl-CoA  Stearoyl-CoA + 2NADP+ + CO2 + CoASH Δ9-Desaturation of Endogenously Synthesized Fatty Acids : Stearoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ + O2  Oleoyl-CoA + NAD+ + 2H2O

Regulation : 

Regulation Acetyl CoA Carboxylase Phosphorylation – AMP activated Kinase Feedback Inhibition – Palmitoyl CoA Allosteric activation – Citrate Insulin – induces synthesis Glucagon – represses synthesis

Abnormal Function : 

Abnormal Function Alcoholic Liver disease Essential Fatty Acid deficiency Defeciency of Omega-3-Fatty Acids

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