Leadership: Leadership A Leadership Story:: A Leadership Story: A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible. Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree. A Leadership Story:: A Leadership Story: And shouts down to the assembled group below… “Wrong Way!” (Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster). “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker) Leadership: Leadership Types of Leadership Style: Types of Leadership Style Types of Leadership Style: Types of Leadership Style Autocratic: Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else High degree of dependency on the leader Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively Types of Leadership Style: Types of Leadership Style Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct Types of Leadership Style: Types of Leadership Style Democratic: May help motivation and involvement Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business Can delay decision making Types of Leadership Style: Types of Leadership Style Laissez-Faire: ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction Relies on good team work Relies on good interpersonal relations Types of Leadership Style: Types of Leadership Style Paternalistic: Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult Believes in the need to support staff Change Leadership: Change Leadership Change Leadership: Change Leadership The most challenging aspect of business is leading and managing change The business environment is subject to fast-paced economic and social change Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource management Change Leadership: Change Leadership Leaders need to be aware of how change impacts on workers: Series of self-esteem states identified by Adams et al and cited by Garrett Adams, J. Hayes, J. and Hopson, B.(eds) (1976) Transition: understanding and managing change personal change London, Martin Robertson Garrett, V. (1997) Managing Change in School leadership for the 21 st century Brett Davies and Linda Ellison, London, Routledge Change Leadership: Change Leadership Self-esteem Time 1. Immobilisation – as rumours of the change circulate, the individual feels some sense of shock and possible disbelief – so much so that they deem it worthy of doing nothing. 1 2. Minimisation: As the change becomes clearer, people try to fit in the change with their own personal position and may try to believe that it will not affect them. 2 3. Depression: as reality begins to dawn staff may feel alienated and angry, feelings of a lack of control of events overtake people and they feel depressed as they try to reconcile what is happening with their own personal situation. 3 4 4. Acceptance/letting go: The lowest point in self-esteem finally sees people starting to accept the inevitable. Fear of the future is a feature of this stage. 5 5. Testing out: Individuals begin to interact with the change, they start to ask questions to see how they might work with the change. 6 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to work with the change and see how they might be able to make the change work for them – self esteem begins to rise. 7 7. Internalisation: the change is understood and adopted within the individual’s own understanding – they now know how to work with it and feel a renewed sense of confidence and self esteem. Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Trait theories: Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader? Personality? Dominance and personal presence? Charisma? Self confidence? Achievement? Ability to formulate a clear vision? Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Trait theories: Are such characteristics inherently gender biased? Do such characteristics produce good leaders? Is leadership more than just bringing about change? Does this imply that leaders are born not bred? Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Behavioural: Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things Structure based behavioural theories – focus on the leader instituting structures – task orientated Relationship based behavioural theories – focus on the development and maintenance of relationships – process orientated Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Contingency Theories: Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance. Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed into different contexts Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership May depend on: Type of staff History of the business Culture of the business Quality of the relationships Nature of the changes needed Accepted norms within the institution Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Transformational: Widespread changes to a business or organisation Requires: Long term strategic planning Clear objectives Clear vision Leading by example – walk the walk Efficiency of systems and processes Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Invitational Leadership: Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organisation Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of the business both externally and, crucially, internally Review internal processes to reduce these Build relationships and sense of belonging and identity with the organisation – that gets communicated to customers, etc. Theories of Leadership: Theories of Leadership Transactional Theories: Focus on the management of the organisation Focus on procedures and efficiency Focus on working to rules and contracts Managing current issues and problems Factors Affecting Style: Factors Affecting Style Factors Affecting Style: Factors Affecting Style Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved Type of business – creative business or supply driven? How important change is – change for change’s sake? Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?