Upanishad Summaries

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These talks were presented at the Chinmaya Mission Boston Newton chapter by Anand Rao

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Upanishads - Introduction:

Upanishads - Introduction Anand S. Rao

Vedas come from the word Vid or to know Vedas mean revealed knowledge:

Vedas come from the word Vid or to know Vedas mean revealed knowledge

Four Vedas:

Four Vedas Rig Veda Yajur Veda Sama Veda Atharva Veda

UPANISHAD – sitting down near or at the Foot of the Teacher :

UPANISHAD – sitting down near or at the Foot of the Teacher

Why study the vedas or Upanishads?:

Why study the vedas or Upanishads ?

Slide6:

Jeeva Brahma Aikyam – This Self and the Lord are the Same The Upanishads tell us that there is a Reality underlying life which rituals cannot reach, next to which things we see and touch in everyday life are shadows. They teach that this Reality is the essence of every created thing, and the same Reality is our Self, so that each of us is one with the power that created and sustains the Universe. They testify that this oneness can be realized directly, without the mediation of priests or rituals or any of the structures of organized religion, not after death but in this life, and that this life is the purpose for which each of us has been born and the goal toward which evolution moves. - Eknath Easwaran , The Upanishads

Isavasya Upanishad:

Isavasya Upanishad summary

Slide9:

Glory of Immortal Self (15-17) Path of Renunciation (1) Vidya & Avidya (9-14) Path of Action (2) Goal of Life (4-8) Pain & Darkness (3) Prayer to the Supreme Self (18) Shantipath Isavasya Upanishad (18) Shantipath That is Whole , this is Whole ; from the Whole the Whole becomes manifest. From the Whole , when the Whole is negated or removed, what remains again is the Whole . Path of Renunciation This entire universe is clothed, inhabited, pervaded, and enveloped by the Lord. Enjoy nature as the gift from God, but with a spirit of renunciation. Do not be attached to them and do not covet the wealth of others. Glory of Immortal Self O (Sun) Lord remove the golden lid covering the Truth so that I can experience your Glory and declare ‘He am I’. Let my prana merge into the all-pervading air and my body burnt to ashes. Prayer to the Supreme Self O (Sun) Lord lead us to liberation and remove our attractions to things that bind us. We offer Thee our Salutations. Vidya & Avidya Karma (Action), Upasana (Meditation), and Bhakti (Worship) together lead you towards Knowledge & ultimately Liberation (Moksha). Any one of them on their own is insufficient to achieve Liberation. Goal of Life The Goal of Life is Moksha or Liberation by (a) constantly seeing everywhere all existence in the Self and (b) the Self in all beings and forms Path of Action Only by working or acting this way may you live a hundred years. Thus alone will you work in real freedom. Action never clings to a man following this path. . Pain & Darkness Those who fail to follow either the Path of Renunciation or the Path of Action will be condemned to be born again in this or other worlds.

Slide10:

kurvann eveha karmāṇi jijīviṣet śataṁ samāḥ |  evaṁ tvayi nānyatheto’sti na karma lipyate nare ||2|| Only by working or acting this way may you live a hundred years. Thus alone will you work in real freedom. Action never clings to a man following this path. Om īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam yat kiṁ ca jagatyāṁ jagat |  tena tyaktena bhuñjitha , ma gṛdhaḥ kasyasvid dhanam ||1|| This entire universe is clothed, inhabited, pervaded, and enveloped by the Lord. Enjoy nature as the gift from God, but with a spirit of renunciation. Do not be attached to them and do not covet the wealth of others. yas tu sarvāṇi bhūtani ātmany evānupaśyati |  sarvabhūteṣu catmānaṁ tato na vijugupsate ||6|| He who constantly sees everywhere all existence in the Self and the Self in all beings and forms thereafter feels no hatred for anything. Isavasya Upanishad – Verses to Contemplate UPON

KENOPANISHAD:

KENOPANISHAD summary

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The saving knowledge of the Upanishads is revealed as austerity, restraint, and dedicated . work. The one who knows and experiences it reaches liberation (Verses 26-34) May my limbs, speech, prana (vital air), eye, ear, strength of all my senses grow vigorous. All (everything) is Brahman of the Upanishad-s. May I never deny the Brahman. Story about how Agni (fire god), Vayu (wind god), and Indra (King of Gods) are taught a lesson by the Supreme Brahman after their victory with the demons. The story brings out the fact Brahman is the essential force behind everything (Verses 14-25) By whom or by what force do we see, hear, speak, think etc ? It is the Ear of the Ear, the Mind of the Mind, the Speech of the Speech and also the Life of the Life and the Eye of the Eye. Having abandoned the sense of Self of I-ness in these and rising above sense-life, the wise become Immortal (Verses 1-8) Part - 4 Shantipath Part - 1 Part - 2 Part - 3 Kenopanishad The one who says he ‘knows Brahman’ knows it not. The one who truly experiences Brahman achieves immortality ‘here’ and ‘now’ (Verses 9-13)

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śrotrasya śrotraṃ manaso mano yadvāco ha vācaṃ sa u prāṇasya prāṇaścakṣuṣaścakṣuḥ |  atimucya dhīrāḥ pretyāsmāllokādamṛtā bhavanti || 2 || Guru: It is the Ear of the Ear, the Mind of the Mind, the Speech of the Speech and also the Life of the Life and the Eye of the Eye. Having abandoned the sense of Self of I-ness in these and rising above sense-life, the wise become Immortal oṃ keneṣitaṃ patati preṣitaṃ manaḥ kena prāṇaḥ prathamaḥ praiti yuktaḥ |  keneṣitāṃ vācamimāṃ vadanti cakṣuḥ śrotraṃ ka u devo yunakti || 1 || Disciple: Who makes my mind think? Who fills my body with vitality? Who causes my tongue to speak? Who is that invisible one who sees through my eyes and hears through my ears? tasai tapo damaḥ karmeti pratiṣṭhā vedāḥ sarvāṅgāni satyamāyatanam || 33 || yovā etāmevaṃ vedāpahatya pāpmānamanante svarge loke jyeye pratitiṣṭhati pratitiṣṭhati ||34 || Austerity, restraint and dedicated work – these are the foundations of It – the Saving Knowledge of the Upanishads. The Vedas are its limb and Truth is its abode. Verily he who knows It thus, destroys sin and is established in Brahman, the Boundless, the Highest and the Blissful – Yes, he is established in it. KENOPANISHAD – Verses to Contemplate UPON

KATHOPANISHAD:

KATHOPANISHAD summary

Slide15:

Invocation Let Him protect us both. May He bless us with bliss of knowledge. Let us exert together. May what we study be well studied. May we not hate (quarrel with) each other. Katho-panishad The Pursuit of Knowledge and Yoga Reveals that the essence of Man is the eternal Brahman and the only way to achieve self-realization is through meditation and introspection.. Story of Vajasravasa Describes the story of Nachiketas and his conversation with the Lord of Death, Yama, who reveals to him what happens to the soul after death and how to attain liberation from the bondage of life and death. The Theory of Karma and Rebirth Concludes by reiterating the theory of Karma and Rebirth and highlighting that self-realization, here and now, is the only way to break the cycle. Analogy of the Ashvatha tree is used to urge us to attach ourselves to the root of the tree, the Brahman, and cut our bondage with sense objects. The Soul After Death Declares that the soul is reborn again and again based on its Karma and Knowledge. The only way to break from this cycle is through self-realization. The Nature of Atman and its Importance Explains what is Atman, its nature, and how it can be known. It declares that Atman within each one of us is the same as the eternal, undifferentiated, consciousness principle Brahman. The Parable of the Chariot Relates the Self, the intellect, mind, the senses, and the body to the Chariot in order to emphasize the need for self-control and discrimination. Valli-1 Valli-2 Valli-3 Valli-4 Valli-5 Valli-6 Invocation

Slide16:

Know the Ātman as the master within the chariot, and the body verily, as the chariot; know the buddhi (intelligence) as the charioteer, and the manas (insipient mind), verily, as the reins (3-3) The sense-organs, they say, are the horses, and the roads for them are the sense-objects. The wise call Him (the Atman) the enjoyer or experiencer (when He is) united with the body, senses, and mind (3-4). ātmānaṃ rathinaṃ viddhi śarīraṃ rathameva tu |  buddhiṃ tu sārathiṃ viddhi manaḥ pragrahameva ca || 3-3 || indriyāṇi hayānāhurviṣayāṃ steṣu gocarān |  ātmendriyamanoyuktaṃ bhoktetyāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ || 3-4 || na tatra sūryo bhāti na candratārakaṃ nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto'yamagniḥ | tameva bhāntamanubhāti sarvaṃ tasya bhāsā sarvamidaṃ vibhāti || 5-15 || The sun does not shine there, nor does the moon, nor do the stars, nor the lightnings and much less this fire. When He shines, everything shines after him; by His light, all these shine (5-15). KATOPANISHAD – Verses to Contemplate UPON

PrasnoPANISHAD:

PrasnoPANISHAD summary

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Invocation May we hear auspicious words with our ears; see auspicious things with our eyes; live our entire life cheerfully in perfect health and strength offering our praises unto thee. May Indra , the ancient and the famous, bless us; May Sun, the all-knowing bless us; May Vayu, the Lord of swift motion who protects us from all harms, bless us; May Brihaspati, the Lord of wisdom, bless us all.  Prashnopanishad How many devas support the created beings? These Devas are verily Space, akasa , – the Air, fire, water, earth, speech, mind, eye and ear, as well. These, having manifested their glory, said boastfully: "We support this body and uphold it” (2.2) What is the origin of all created beings? Prajapati , the Creator, was desirous of progeny. With this in view, he performed austerities and having performed austerities, created the pair, the Matter ( Rayi ) and the Energy ( Prana ) thinking that together they would produce creatures in many ways (1.4) Where is the Purusha of sixteen forms? He created Prana ; from Prana faith, space, air, fire, water, earth, the senses, the mind, food; strength, thought, mantra, karma, the world and in the world the different names also (6.4) What is the result of worshipping OM? The syllable AUM is the Supreme Brahman and also the other Brahman. Therefore he who knows it attains, with its support, the one or the other (5.2) What senses operate in the waking, dream, sleep states? In Deep Sleep a man hears not, sees not, smells not, tastes not, touches not, speaks not, grasps not, enjoys not, evacuates not and does not move about (4.2). In dream state whatever has been seen or not seen, heard or not heard and whatever is real or not real - he sees it all (4.5) How does Prana enter and leave the body? The Prana comes from the Self, Atman. Just as a shadow is cast by the body of a person, so this Prana is, inherent in the Self, Atman and it enters the body by the activities of the mind (3.4). The ego-center (with the subtle body), thus propelled by the Udana , is the Jivatma which is led to its next field of experiences ( loka ) according to its own willing and desiring, determined and declared by itself with its last thoughts (3.10) Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Invocation

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tasmai sa hovaacha prajaakaamo vai prajaapatih sa tapo.atapyata sa tapastaptvaa sa mithunamutpaadayate | rayim cha pranam chetyetau me bahudhaa prajaah karishhyata iti ||1.4||  To him the teacher said: Prajapati , the Creator, was desirous of progeny. With this in view, he performed austerities and having performed austerities, created the pair, the Matter ( Rayi ) and the Energy ( Prana ) thinking that together they would produce creatures in many ways. paramevaaksharam pratipadyate sa yo ha vai tadachchhaayamashariiramlohitam shubhramaksharam vedayate yastu somya | sa sarvagyah sarvo bhavati | tadeshha shlokah || 4.10|| He who knows this imperishable Being, bright, without shadow, without body, without color, which is pure and indestructible becomes omniscient and becomes all; the Supreme, indestructible Being he surly attains. For this there is a mantra. PRASHNOPANISHAD – Verses to Contemplate UPON etadvai satyakaama param chaaparam cha brahma yadonkaarah | tasmaadvidvaanetenaivaayatanenaikataramanveti || 5.2|| O Satyakama , the syllable AUM is the Supreme Brahman and also the other Brahman. Therefore he who knows it attains, with its support, the one or the other.

MundokaPANISHAD:

MundokaPANISHAD summary

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Invocation May we hear auspicious words with our ears; see auspicious things with our eyes; live our entire life cheerfully in perfect health and strength offering our praises unto thee. May Indra , the ancient and the famous, bless us; May Sun, the all-knowing bless us; May Vayu, the Lord of swift motion who protects us from all harms, bless us; May Brihaspati, the Lord of wisdom, bless us all.  Mundako-panishad Sacrifices, oblations, and pious works But they who perform tapas (penance) with sraddha (faith) in the forest, having a control over their senses, learned and living the life of a mendicant, go through the orb of the sun, their good and bad deeds consumed, to where the immortal and undecaying   Purusha  is (2.11) The higher knowledge vs lower knowledge Angiras , said to Saunaka “There are two sorts of knowledge to be acquired, namely, Apara (lower) and Para (higher). So say those who know Brahman. (1.4) Be ethical, know yourself, be tranquil He who knows that Supreme Brahman becomes Brahman; and in his line, none who knows not the Brahman will ever be born. He crosses grief; crosses sin, and being freed from the knots-of-the-heart, becomes immortal (6.9) Reach the highest Oneness in all beings The Self is attained through truth ( satyam ), concentration or austerity (tapas), knowledge or wisdom ( samyak-jnanena ) and self-control or continence ( brahmacharya ); cultivate all of them constantly. When impurities (thus) dwindle, the ascetic beholds Him – stainless, resplendent – within his very body (5.5) Om, Self and Brahman There the sun does not shine, nor the moon, nor the stars; there lightnings do not shine. Verily everything shines after Him reflecting His glory. This whole world is illumined with His light (4.10) Brahman is the inner Self of all things The  Purusha  alone is all this universe—the sacrificial works (Karma) and austerities (Tapas). O good-looking youth! He who knows this highest and immortal Brahman as seated in the cavity of the heart, unties the knot of ignorance even here, in this very life (3.10) Higher & Lower knowledge Sacrifices, oblations, and pious works Brahman is the inner Self of all things Om, Self and Brahman Reach the highest Oneness in all beings Be ethical, know yourself, be tranquil Invocation

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dhanurgṛhītvaupaniṣadaṃ mahāstraṃ śaraṃ hyupāsāniśitaṃ saṃdhayīta |  āyamya tadbhāvagatena cetasā lakṣyaṃ tadevākṣaraṃ somya viddhi || 4.3 || Having taken the great weapon – the bow furnished by the Upanishads, and fixed in it the arrow rendered pointed by constant meditation; and having drawn it with the mind fixed on the Brahman,  O good looking youth! Penetrate that mark—the immortal Brahman. na tatra sūryo bhāti na candratārakaṃ nemā vidyuto bhānti kuto'yamagniḥ |  tameva bhāntamanubhāti sarvaṃ tasya bhāsā sarvamidaṃ vibhāti || 4.10 || There the sun does not shine, nor the moon, nor the stars; there lightnings do not shine. Verily everything shines after Him reflecting His glory. This whole world is illumined with His light. MUNDAKOPANISHAD – Verses to Contemplate UPON vedāntavijñānasuniścitārthāḥ saṁnyāsayogādyatayaḥ śuddhasattvāḥ |  te brahmalokeṣu parāntakāle parāmṛtāḥ parimucyanti sarve || 6.6 || Having well ascertained beyond all doubts the exact import of the Upanishads and having purified their minds with the ‘Yoga of Renunciation’ all anchorites attain the world of Brahman having attained immortality and at the time of death become fully liberated.

TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD:

TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD summary

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Invocation Om. May Mitra be propitious to us, and Varuṇa propitious be; may Aryaman propitious be to us; propitious be Indra and Bṛhaspati to us; to us propitious may Viṣṇu of vast extent be. Bow to Brahman! Bow to Thee, Vāyu ! Thou art indeed Brahman perceptible. Thee indeed will I declare Brahman perceptible. The right will I declare; and I will declare the true. May That protect me; may That protect the teacher. Me may That protect; may It protect the teacher. Om! Peace! Peace! Peace! SIKSHA VALLI Elaborates the science of phonetics, tips for contemplation and meditation, ethical principles and practices, and commandments to live by. Some of these commandments include, speak the truth, do your duty, never swerve from the study of Vedas, give gifts in plenty with faith. Modesty and empathy, treat your mother, father, teacher, and guest as God. BHRGU VALLI Food is Brahman because it is from food that all these beings are born; by food, when born, do they live; and having departed, into food they enter. Similarly Brahman is vital air, mind, intellect, and bliss. Do not ‘blaspheme’ food; do not ‘reject’ food; accumulate food. As you meditate on Brahman, so you become – supported, great, or destructive. BRAHMANANDA VALLI B rahman is truth, knowledge, and infinity. The Five Sheaths – food, vital air, mind, intellect, and bliss - arise within the consciousness and disappears within the consciousness; The five sheaths cannot exist without the consciousness. One unit of Brahman bliss is one hundred quintillion units of human bliss. The realized one achieves this bliss is here and now. Taittiriya Upanishad Invocation Siksha Valli Brahmananda Valli Bhrgu Valli

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Never swerve from your duties towards gods and towards the departed ‘souls’ (manes). May the mother be, to thee, a god. May the father be, to thee, a god. May the preceptor be, to thee, a god. May the guest be, to thee, a god (1.9.2) devapitåkäryäbhyäà na pramaditavyam , mätådevo bhava, pitådevo bhava, äcäryadevo bhava, atithidevo bhava, (1.9.2) om brahmavidapnoti param , tadesú'bhyukta , Satyam jñānamanantam brahma, yo veda nihitam guhāyām parame wyoman , so's nute Sarvān kamān Saha brahmand vipaściteti . (2.1.2) Om, the knower of Brahman attains the Supreme. With reference to that, is the following hymn recited: Brahman is the Truth, Knowledge and Infinity. He who knows It as existing in the cave of the heart in the transcendent äkäsa , realises all his desires along with omniscient Brahman (2.1.2) TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD – Verses to Contemplate UPON

AITERAYA UPANISHAD:

AITERAYA UPANISHAD summary

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Invocation Om!, May my speech be fixed in my mind, may my mind be fixed in my speech! O self-luminous Brahman, reveal yourself to me. O mind and speech enable me to grasp the truth which the scriptures teach. Let me not forget what I learnt. Let me study day and night. May I think truth? May I speak truth? May truth protect me? May truth protect the teacher? Protect me. Protect the teacher. Protect the teacher. Aum . Peace! Peace! Peace! Origin of the Universe & Man In the beginning there was only Brahman and then he willed to create the world. He then created the worlds Ambhah , Marici , Maram and Apah . He then created the world-guardians and the Virat Purusha from water. He then created the five senses, the mind, apana , and the means for reproduction. Having created the world and the world guardians, the creator created food. From water emerged a condensed form – the food. The food tried to get away and he grasped it through Apana. So, piercing the skull, the Lord entered through that door or vidriti . Having been born as the Jiva , He realized the elements as one with Himself Consciousness is Supreme Oneness Is it the heart (intellect) and the mind? It is consciousness, lordship, knowledge, wisdom, retentive power of mind, sense knowledge, steadfastness, thought, thoughtfulness, sorrow, memory, concepts, purpose, life, desire, longing: all these are but various names of Consciousness ( Prajnanam ). He is Brahma, He is Indra, He is Prajapati; He is all these gods; He is the five great elements—earth, air, akasa , water, light; He is horses, cows, human beings, elephants—whatever breathes here, whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. All this is guided by Consciousness, is supported by Consciousness. The basis of the universe is Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman ( Prajnanam Brahma).  The Three Births of the Self This person ( Jiva ) is, at first, the germ or semen in a man. When he pours the semen into a woman, he procreates himself. This, is the first birth . The woman nourishes the embryo. Immediately after its birth the father nourishes the child. This is one's second birth . The child who is the father’s own Self is made his substitute for performing virtuous deeds. Then the Self of the father, having accomplished his duties and reached his age departs. So departing hence, he is born again. This is the third birth .   Aiteraya Upanishad Invocation Origin of the Universe & Man The Three Births of the Self Consciousness is Supreme Oneness

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He is Brahma, He is Indra, He is Prajapati; He is all these gods; He is the five great elements—earth, air, akasa , water, light; He is all these small creatures and the others which are mixed; He is the origin—those born of an egg, of a womb, of sweat and of a sprout; He is horses, cows, human beings, elephants—whatever breathes here, whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. All this is guided by Consciousness, is supported by Consciousness. The basis of the universe is Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman ( Prajnanam Brahma ) [1.3.3] eṣa brahmaiṣa indra eṣa prajāpatir-ete sarve devā imāni ca pañca mahābhūtāni pṛthivī vāyur-ākāśa āpo jyotīṁśītyetānīmāni ca kṣudra-miśrāṇīva bījānītarāṇi cetarāṇi cāṇdajāni ca jārūjāni ca svedajāni codbhijāni ca- asvā gāvaḥ puruṣā hastino yatkiñcedaṁ prāṇi jaṅgamaṁ ca patatri ca yacca sthāvaraṁ sarvaṁ tat- prajñānetram , prajñāne pratiṣṭhitaṁ prajnānetro lokaḥ prajñā pratiṣṭhā prajñānaṁ brahma [1.3.3] AiteraYA UPANISHAD – Verse to Contemplate UPON

CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD:

CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD summary

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Sanathkumara & Narada Meditation on the Fivefold Tat Tvam Asi The Honey Doctrine Soul After Death Four Quarters for Brahman Nature of the Self OM Chandogya Upanishad OM The syllable OM, Udhgitha , is to be meditated upon. The essence of all these beings is OM - from beings to earth, water, plants, a person, speech, Rig−Veda, Sama −Veda, and ultimately the Udgitha – OM. Meditation on the Fivefold All this is Brahman. From It the universe comes forth, in It the universe merges and in It the universe breathes. Therefore a man should meditate on Brahman with a calm mind. Sanathkumara & Narada Conversation between Sanathkumara and Sage Narada presents a hierarchy of progressive meditation, from outer worldly knowledge to inner worldly knowledge, from finite current knowledge to infinite Atman knowledge, as a step-wise journey to Self and infinite bliss Nature of the Self The body one is born with is the "city of Brahman", and in it is a palace that is special because the entire universe is contained within it. Whatever has been, whatever will be, whatever is, and whatever is not, is all inside that palace and the resident of the palace is the Brahman, as Atman – the Self Tat Tvam Asi From the Supreme Brahman was born the three elements and from them all beings and this world. The essence of everything is Brahman (honey from different trees, rivers merging into the ocean, sap of the tree, seed, salt and water) and the Guru reveals the path (blindfolded captive, heated axe) Soul After Death The two paths of after-life are the Devayana (path of Gods) who live a life of knowledge and merge with Brahman and Pitryana (path of the fathers) who return back to the earth once their merits are exhausted. The Honey Doctrine Sun is described as the source of all light and life and is compared to the “honey” of all Vedas. Gayatri meter is the essence of Brahman. The ultimate heaven and hell is the human body whose doorkeepers are eyes, ears, speech, organs, mind and breath. . Four Quarters of Brahman The forms of Brahman is in all cardinal directions (north, south, east, west), world-bodies (earth, atmosphere, sky and ocean), sources of light (fire, sun, moon, lightning), and in man (breath, eye, ear and mind)

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These rivers, dear boy, flowing to the east are called†‘eastern’†rivers , and flowing west, ‘ western’†rivers . They rise from the ocean and merge in the ocean, becoming the ocean once again. There these rivers, as themselves, they do not know “I am this river¨ I am that river.” That Existence is this same subtle essence. Superimposed on IT, is this whole world. (or, The whole world has That as its Self, its Essence.) is the Truth; That is the Self. THAT THOU ART, O Shvetaketu . CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD – Verse to Contemplate UPON imaah somya nadyah purastaat praachyah syandante , paschaat prateechyah taah samudraat samudram eva apiyanti , sah samudrah eva bhavati ; taah yathaa tatra na viduh iyam aham asmi iyam aham asmi ” iti . sah yah eshah animaa ; aitadaatmyam idam sarvam ; tat satyam , sah aatmaa ; TAT TVAM ASI, shvetaketah iti

BRHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD:

BRHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD summary

Slide33:

Invocation That is Whole , this is Whole ; from the Whole the Whole becomes manifest. From the Whole , when the Whole is negated or removed, what remains again is the Whole Madhu Kanda Saga of Creation: The Supreme Self alone was and nothing else existed. The first thought was “I am Brahman” or “ Aham Brahmasmi ” Ajatasatru Brahmana: Conversation between Balaki and Sage Ajatasatru on meditating upon Brahman that is behind the Sun, moon, lightning, etc Maitreyi Brahmana: The Universe is not different from the Self before its Manifestation, during its Existence and after its Disappearance. Path to Brahman – Sukham (Pleasure)-Shanti (Peace)-Ananda (Bliss) KHILA KANDA The three great disciplines to have are Damyata - self-control, Datta - charity, and Dayadhvam - compassion. Muni Khanda Discussion between Sage Yajnavalkya and eight other sages in the court of King Janaka Gargi Brahmana: Debate between Sage Yajnavalkya and Sage Gargi on conditioned and unconditioned Brahman. Highlights what Brahman is not with the 24 attributes that cannot be attributed to Brahman. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Invocation Madhu Kanda Muni Khanda Khila Kanda

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sa hovāca : etad vai tad akṣaram , gārgī , brāhmaṇā abhivadanti , asth ῡ lam, anaṇu , ahrasvam , adīrgham , alohitam , asneham , acchāyam , atamaḥ , avāyv anākāśam , asaṅgam , arasam , agandham , acakṣuṣkam , aśrotram , avāk , amanaḥ , atejaskam , aprāṇam , amukham , amātram , anantaram , abāhyam ; na tad aśnāti kiṁ cana , na tad aśnāti kaś cana . Yajnavalkya describes the formless Imperishable Brahman in terms of Neti-Neti i.e. "not this, not this". It is neither gross nor subtle, neither short nor long, it has no color nor is it connected to anything, does not cast a shadow nor is it darkness, neither air nor ether, unattached, neither savour nor odour , without eyes or ears, without the vocal organ or mind, non-luminous, without the vital force or mouth, not a measure, and without interior or exterior. It does not eat anything, nor is It eaten by anybody. (3.3.8) BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD – Verse to Contemplate UPON asato mā sadgamaya , tamaso mā jyotirgamaya , mṛtyormāmṛtaṃ gamayeti Om Shanti, Shanti, Shantihi From darkness lead me to light. From death lead me to immortality. (1.3.28) 

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