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Chinmaya Mission Boston Newton Chapter Sunday Classes conducted by Anand Rao

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UPANISHADS:

UPANISHADS

Vedas come from the word Vid or to know Vedas mean revealed knowledge:

Vedas come from the word Vid or to know Vedas mean revealed knowledge

Four Vedas:

Four Vedas Rig Veda Yajur Veda Sama Veda Atharva Veda

UPANISHAD – sitting down near or at the Foot of the Teacher :

UPANISHAD – sitting down near or at the Foot of the Teacher

Slide5:

Jeeva Brahma Aikyam – This Self and the Lord are the Same The Upanishads tell us that there is a Reality underlying life which rituals cannot reach, next to which things we see and touch in everyday life are shadows. They teach that this Reality is the essence of every created thing, and the same Reality is our Self, so that each of us is one with the power that created and sustains the Universe. They testify that this oneness can be realized directly, without the mediation of priests or rituals or any of the structures of organized religion, not after death but in this life, and that this life is the purpose for which each of us has been born and the goal toward which evolution moves. - Eknath Easwaran , The Upanishads

The journey of Upanishad Continues…:

The journey of Upanishad Continues … 2016-2017 Isavasya Upanishad Keno Upanishad Kato Upanishad 2017-2018 Prasno Upanishad Mundaka Upanishad Taitiriya Upanishad Aitreya Upanishad

Prashnopanishad:

Prashnopanishad

Why is it Called PrashnoPanishad?:

Why is it Called PrashnoPanishad ? ‘ Prashna ’ – Question Comes from the Brahmana portion of the Atharva Veda belonging to Pippaladasakha It has 67 mantras spread over 6 chapters It elaborates on the Mantra upanishad - Mundakopanishad  

Invocation:

Invocation Om bhadram karnebhih shrinuyaama devaa   bhadram pashhyemaakshabhiryajatraah   sthirairangaistushhtuvaam sastanuubhirvyashema devahitam yadaayuh   svasti na indro vriddhashravaah   svasti nah puushhaa vishvavedaah svasti nastaarkshyo arishhtanemih   svasti no brihaspatirdadhaatu Om shaantih shaantih shaantih

Invocation:

Invocation Om, O Gods, May we hear auspicious words with our ears,  O Worshipful One, May we see auspicious things with our eyes,  May we live our entire life cheerfully in perfect health and strength offering our   praises unto thee,  May Indra , the ancient and the famous, bless us,  May Pushan (Sun), the all-knowing bless us,  May Vayu (Life Pinciple ), the Lord of swift motion who protects us  from all harms, bless us,  May Brihaspati , the Lord of wisdom, bless us all.  Om Peace! Peace! Peace! 

Introduction:

Introduction SIX SEEKERS AND RISHI PIPPALADA

Six Seekers & ONE GURU:

Six Seekers & ONE GURU Kaatyaayana Kabandhi Bhargava Kausalya   Gargya Satyakama Sukesa Rishi Pippalada

Six Seekers APPROACH THE GURU:

Six Seekers APPROACH THE GURU om sukeshaa cha bhaaradvaajah shaibyashcha satyakaamah sauryaayanii cha gaargyah kausalyashchaashvalaayano bhaargavo vaidarbhih kabandhii kaatyaayanaste haite brahmaparaa brahmanishhthaah param brahmaanveshhamaanaa eshha ha vai tatsarvam vakshyatiiti te ha samitpaanayo bhagavantam pippalaadamupasannaah ||1.1 ||  Om. Sukesa , the son of Bharadvaja , Satyakama , the son of Sibi , Sauryayani , belonging to the family of Garga , Kausalya, the son of Asvala , Bhargava, the son of Bhrigu of Vidarbha , and Kabandhi , the son of Katya - all these, devoted to Brahman and firm in Brahman and seeking the supreme Brahman, approached, fuel in hand, the venerable Pippalada with the thought that he would tell them everything about Brahman. 

Six Seekers APPROACH THE GURU:

Six Seekers APPROACH THE GURU Taanha sa rishhir uvacha bhuuya eva tapasaa B rahmacharyena shraddhayaa Samvatsaram samvatsyatha yathaakaamam prashnaan prichchhata yadi vijnaasyaamah sarvam ha vo vakshyaama iti ||1.2 ||  The sage told them: Stay with me for a whole year, practicing austerities, celibacy and faith. Then ask me whatever questions you like. If I know them, assuredly, I shall tell everything to you. 

Six Seekers APPROACH THE GURU:

Six Seekers APPROACH THE GURU What is the origin of all created beings?  Who protects and guards created beings and who among them is supreme? How does the Chaitanya ( Prana ) enter the body and get diverted into five channels? How does it leave the body? How does it sustain the universe without and within? Which are the senses that operate in the three stages - the waking, dreaming and sleeping? Who is that in whom all these are established? What is the result of worshipping Omkara throughout one’s life?   Where is that Supreme Being, the Person of sixteen forms?

Question 1:

Question 1 Kabandhi & Pippalada

Where do ALL THESE BEINGS COME FROM?:

Where do ALL THESE BEINGS COME FROM? atha kabandhii katyaayana upetya paprachchha | bhagavan.h kuto ha vaa imaah prajaah prajaayanta iti ||1.3 ||  Then Kabandhi , the son of Katya, came to Pippalada and asked, Sir, where do all these beings come from? 

Prajapati – Rayi (matter) & Prana (Energy):

Prajapati – Rayi (matter) & Prana (Energy) tasmai sa hovaacha prajaakaamo vai prajaapatih sa tapo.atapyata sa tapastaptvaa sa mithunamutpaadayate | rayim cha pranam chetyetau me bahudhaa prajaah karishhyata iti ||1.4 ||  To him the teacher said: Prajapati , the Creator, was desirous of progeny. With this in view, he performed austerities and having performed austerities, created the pair, the Matter ( Rayi ) and the Energy ( Prana ) thinking that together they would produce creatures in many ways. 

PRAJAPATI:

PRAJAPATI PRAJAPATI ENERGY ( Prana ) MATTER ( Rayi ) SUN MOON (With form & without form – mind & intellect)

ENERGY & MATTER AS SUN & MOON:

ENERGY & MATTER AS SUN & MOON aadityo ha vai praano rayireva chandramaa rayirvaa etat.h sarvam yanmuurtam chaamuurtam cha tasmaanmuurtireva rayih ||1.5 ||  The sun is, indeed, Prana , life, Energy; the moon is Rayi , food, Matter. All that have form (gross) and all that is formless (subtle) is Matter and therefore anything having a form is indeed Matter. 

SUN ENLIVENS EVERYTHING:

SUN ENLIVENS EVERYTHING athaaditya udayanyatpraachiim disham pravishati tena praachyaan.h praanaan.h rashmishhu sannidhatte | yaddakshinaam yat.h pratiichiim yadudiichiim yadadho yaduurdhvam yadantaraa disho yat.h sarvam prakaashayati tena sarvaan.h praanaan.h rashmishhu sannidhatte || 1.6 ||  Now the sun, when it rises, enters the eastern quarter and thereby enfolds the living beings of the east in its rays. And when it illuminates the southern, the western, the northern, the lower, the upper and the intermediate quarters—when it illuminates everything - it thus enfolds all living beings in its rays. 

Vaisvanara & Visvarupa:

Vaisvanara & Visvarupa sa eshha vaishvaanaro vishvarupah praano.agnirudayate|tadetadrichaa.abhyuktam.h ||1.7 ||  vishvaruupam harinam jaatavedasam   paraayanam jyotirekam tapantam.h |  sahasrarashmih shatadhaa vartamaanah   praanah prajaanaamudayatyeshha suuryah ||1.8 ||  That sun is vaisvanara or one who is identified with all living beings. He is visvarupa or one who assumes all forms. It rises everyday as Prana (life) and Agni (fire, energy). This has been described in the following mantra of RigVeda . “The thousand rayed sun exists in hundreds of forms as life of all living beings. It is resplendent, all-knowing, goal of all, sole light and giver of energy”. 

PRAJAPATI:

PRAJAPATI PRAJAPATI YEAR DAY PATH OF THE SUN (NORTHERN) PATH OF THE MOON (SOUTHERN) MONTH BRIGHT HALF – SUN – ENERGY DARK HALF – MOON – MATTER DAY – ENERGY NIGHT – MATTER

PRAJAPATI:

PRAJAPATI ENERGY ( Prana ) - SUN Northern path Austerity, Chastity Faith Knowledge Reach Brahmaloka – never to return MATTER ( Rayi ) - MOON Southern path Sacrifices Pious acts Reach Pitruloka – to return to earth

Prajapati is the YEAR:

Prajapati is the YEAR sa.nvatsaro vai prajaapatistasyaayane dakshinam chottaram cha | tadye ha vai tadishhtaapuurte kritamityupaasate te chaandramasameva lokamabhijayante | ta eva punaraavartante tasmaadeta rishhayah prajaakaamaa dakshinam pratipadyante | eshha ha vai rayiryah pitriyaanah || 1.9 ||  The year is indeed Prajapati and there are two paths thereof: the Southern and the Northern. Those who follow the path of Karma alone by the performance of sacrificial and pious acts obtain only the World of the Moon and certainly they do return. Therefore those sages who desire offspring travel by the Southern Path. The matter ( Rayi ) is verily the path of the Forefathers. 

Prajapati is the YEAR:

Prajapati is the YEAR athottarena tapasaa brahmacharyena shraddhayaa vidyayaa.a . atmaanamanvishhyaadityamabhijayante | etadvai praanaanaamaa yatanametad amritamabhayametat.h paraayanametasmaanna punaraavartanta ityeshha nirodhastadeshha shlokah ||1.10 ||  But those who seek the Self through austerity, chastity, faith and knowledge, travel by the Northern Path and gain the Sun. The Sun, verily, is the goal of all living creatures, the Immortal, the Fearless; this is the final goal. From there they do not return, for, this is the end. For this there is a mantra. 

The SUN:

The SUN pajnchapaadam pitaram dvaadashaakritim   diva aahuh pare ardhe puriishhinam.h |  atheme anya u pare vichakshanam   saptachakre shhadara aahurarpitamiti || 1.11 ||  Some call Him the father with five feet and with twelve forms, the giver of rain and the dweller in the region above the sky. Others, again, say that the Sun is omniscient; the one upon whom like a chariot drawn by seven horses running on a wheel with six spokes, the whole world is founded. 

PRAJAPATI IS THE MONTH:

PRAJAPATI IS THE MONTH maaso vai prajaapatistasya krishhnapaksha eva rayih shuklah pranastasmaadete rishhayah shukla ishhtam kurvantiitara itarasmin.h ||1.12 ||  The month, verily, is Prajapati . Its dark half, verily, is food, Rayi (matter); its bright half, the eater, Prana (energy). Therefore some Rishis perform sacrifice in the bright half of the month, but some perform them in the dark half.   

PRAJAPATI IS DAY/NIGHT:

PRAJAPATI IS DAY/NIGHT ahoraatro vai prajaapatistasyaahareva praano raatrireva rayih praanam vaa ete praskandanti ye divaa ratyaa sa.nyujyante brahmacharyameva tadyadraatrau ratyaa sa.nyujyante ||1.13 ||  Day and night, verily, are Prajapati . Of these, day is the life, Prana and night, the matter, Rayi . Those who join in sexual enjoyment by day verily waste their life; while those who do so during the night are to be considered celibate ( Brahmachari ).   

PRAJAPATI IS FOOD:

PRAJAPATI IS FOOD annam vai prajaapatistato ha vai tadretastasmaadimaah prajaah prajaayanta iti ||14 ||  Food , verily, is Prajapati . From that comes semen; from semen are all these creatures born.   

BRAHMALOKA:

BRAHMALOKA tadye ha vai tat.h prajaapativratam charanti te mithunamutpaadayante | teshhaamevaishha brahmaloko yeshhaam tapo brahmacharyam yeshhu satyam pratishhtitam.h ||15 ||  Those , therefore, who observe this rule of Prajapati beget a pair. But Brahmaloka belongs to those who observe austerity and chastity and in whom truth is firmly established.   

QUALIFICATIONS FOR BRAHMALOKA:

QUALIFICATIONS FOR BRAHMALOKA teshhaamasau virajo brahmaloko na yeshhu jihmamanritam na maayaa cheti || 16||  The pure Brahmaloka belongs to those in whom there is no crookedness, no falsehood, and no deception.   

The History of Our World:

The History of Our World The Big History

When very large stars die, they create temperatures so high that protons begin to fuse in all sorts of exotic combinations, to form all the elements of the periodic table.  That sun is vaisvanara or one who is identified with all living beings. He is visvarupa or one who assumes all forms. It rises everyday as Prana (life) and Agni (fire, energy) – Prashnopanishad V8:

When very large stars die, they create temperatures so high that protons begin to fuse in all sorts of exotic combinations, to form all the elements of the periodic table.  That sun is vaisvanara or one who is identified with all living beings. He is visvarupa or one who assumes all forms. It rises everyday as Prana (life) and Agni (fire, energy ) – Prashnopanishad V8 The BIG HISTORY vs PRAHSNOPANISHAD

And what starts happening is that, around young suns, young stars, all these elements combine, they swirl around, the energy of the star stirs them around, they form particles, they form snowflakes, they form little dust motes, they form rocks, they form asteroids, and eventually, they form planets and moons. And that is how our solar system was formed, four and a half billion years ago. :

And what starts happening is that, around young suns, young stars, all these elements combine, they swirl around, the energy of the star stirs them around, they form particles, they form snowflakes, they form little dust motes, they form rocks, they form asteroids, and eventually, they form planets and moons. And that is how our solar system was formed, four and a half billion years ago.  The BIG HISTORY vs PRAHSNOPANISHAD This has been described in the following mantra of RigVeda . “The thousand rayed sun exists in hundreds of forms as life of all living beings. It is resplendent, all-knowing, goal of all, sole light and giver of energy ” – Prashnopanishad V8

Question 1I:

Question 1I Bhargava & Pippalada

Bhargava’s Question:

Bhargava’s Question atha hainam bhaargavo vaidarbhih paprachchha | bhagavan.h katyeva devaah prajaam vidhaarayante katara etat.h prakashayante kah punareshhaam varishhtha iti || 2.1 || Then Bhargava of Vidarbha , asked him ( Pippalada ): Sir, how many Devas support the created being? How many of these manifest their power through it? And which one among them is paramount?  

Five Elements:

Five Elements tasmai sa hovaacha akaasha ha vaa eshha devo vaayur agnir aapah prithivii vaanmanash chakshuh shrotram cha | te prakaashyaabhivadanti vayametad baanam avashhtabhya vidhaarayaamah || 2.2 || To the disciple he replied: These Devas are verily Space, akasa , – the Air, fire, water, earth, speech, mind, eye and ear, as well. These, having manifested their glory, said boastfully: "We support this body and uphold it".  

Slide40:

STHULA SARIRA SUKSHMA SARIRA KARANA SARIRA Source: http:// explorevedanta.com / vedanta -in-pictures/

Slide41:

Source: http:// explorevedanta.com / vedanta -in-pictures/ GROSS BODY OR STHULA SARIRA

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NAME QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS Akasa Space or Ether Sabda or Sound Can only be heard. Cannot be seen, smelt, felt or tasted Vayu or Air Sparsha or Touch Can be heard & felt by touch. Cannot be smelt, seen or tasted Tejas Or Agni or Fire Rupa or Form Can be seen, heard & felt. Cannot be smelt or tasted Apah or Water Rasa or Taste Can be seen, heard, felt & tasted. Cannot be smelt Prithvi or Earth Gandha or Smell Can be seen, tasted, felt, heard and smelt GROSS BODY OR STHULA SARIRA Source: http:// esamskriti.com / Prasnopanishad -TNS- Complete.pdf

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Source: http:// explorevedanta.com / vedanta -in-pictures/

Slide44:

NAME FUNCTIONS LOCATED IN Prana Respiration – inhaling & exhaling. Nose Apana Evacuation or Excretion of wastes Anus & Genitals Vyana Circulation - pervades the nerves of the body Entire Body Samana Assimilation or Digestion of food. Central Region of the Body Udana Reaction or Pushing Upwards - maintains heat in the body Throat FIVE PRANAS Source: http:// esamskriti.com / Prasnopanishad -TNS- Complete.pdf

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NAME FIELDS OF EXPERIENCE PRESIDING DEITIES Vaak or Speech Bhasanam or To Speak Agni or Fire Paani or Hands Vastu Grahanam or To grasp things Indra or Lord Indra Paada or Legs Gamanam or Locomotion Vishnu or Lord Vishnu Upastha or Genitals Ananda or Pleasure & Procreation Prajapati or Prajapati Paayu or Anus Maalatyaaga or Elimination of waste Mrityu or Lord Yama FIVE ORGANS OF ACTION (KARMENDRIYAS) Source: http:// esamskriti.com / Prasnopanishad -TNS- Complete.pdf

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Source: http:// explorevedanta.com / vedanta -in-pictures/

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Source: http:// esamskriti.com / Prasnopanishad -TNS- Complete.pdf NAME FIELDS OF EXPERIENCE PRESIDING DEITIES CORRESPONDING MAHABHUTA Chakshu or Eyes Roopa or Perception of Forms Surya or Sun Tejas Or Agni or Fire Srotra or Ear Sabda or Reception of Sound Akasha or Space Akasa Space or Ether Ghraana or Nose Gandha or Cognition of Smell Aswini Kumars - Twins Prithvi or Earth Jihva or Tongue Rasa or Cognition of Taste Varuna or Water Apah or Water Tvacha or Skin Sparsha or Cognition of Touch Vayu or Air Vayu or Air FIVE ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE (JNANENDRIYAS)

Slide48:

Source: http:// explorevedanta.com / vedanta -in-pictures/

FIVE PRANAS:

FIVE PRANAS taan.h varishhthah praana uvaacha | maa mohamaapadyatha aham evaitat.h pajnchadhaa.a.atmaanam pravibhajya etadbaanam avashhtabhya vidhaarayaami iti te ashraddadhaanaa babhuuvuh || 2.3 || To them Prana , the chief most said: "Do not fall into delusion. I alone, dividing myself into five parts, support this body and uphold it." But they were incredulous.  

The Supremacy of PRANA:

The Supremacy of PRANA so.abhimaanaaduurdhvam utkraamata iva tasminnutkraamaty athetare sarva evotkraamante tasminshcha pratishhthamaane sarva eva pratishhthante | tadyathaa makshikaa madhukara raajaanam utkraamantam sarva evotkramante tasminshhcha pratshhthamaane sarva eva pratishhtanta evam.h vaanmanashhchakshuh shrotram cha te priitaah praana.n stunvanti || 2.4 || Prana , got irritated, pretended as if it was going to rise, as it were, leaving from the body. Now, when it started to leave, the other organs followed suit. When it settled down they all settled down with it. As bees go out when their queen goes out and return when she returns, even so did speech, mind, eye, ear and the rest. They, being satisfied, praised Prana .  

IN PRAISE OF PRANA:

IN PRAISE OF PRANA eshho.agnistapatyeshha suurya eshha parjanyo maghavaaneshha vaayuh | eshha prithivii rayirdevah sadasachchaamritam cha yat.h || 2.5 || It gives heat as fire, it is the sun, it is the rain; it is Indra , it is the wind, it is the earth, it is the moon (food). It is being and non - being; it is immortality.  

The Wheel:

The Wheel araa iva rathanaabhau praane sarvam pratishhthitam.h | richo yajuumshhi saamaani yagyah kshatram brahma cha || 2.6 || As spokes in the hub of a wheel, everything rests on Prana , including the Rig - Veda, the Yajur - Veda, the Sama - Veda, the kshattriyas and the brahmanas .  

PRANA as the Chief of other organs:

PRANA as the Chief of other organs Prajaapatish-charasi garbhe tvameva pratijaayase | tubhyam praana prajaastvimaa balim haranti yah pranaih pratitishhthasi || 2.7 || As Prajapati , the Lord of living beings, you move about in the womb; it is you, indeed, who are born afterwards as the child. O Prana , you dwell in the body as the chief of other organs. To you alone all these living beings offer oblations.  

PRANA GLORIFIED:

PRANA GLORIFIED devaanaamasi vahnitamah pitrinaam prathamaa svadhaa | rishhiinaam charitam satyam atharvaangirasaamasi || 2.8 || You are the chief carrier of offerings to the gods. You are the recipient of food first offered to the souls of departed ancestors. You are the Truth that sages practice. You also help guide the organs so that they function correctly.  

PRANA GLORIFIED (2):

PRANA GLORIFIED (2) indrastvam praana tejasaa rudro.asi parirakshitaa | tvam-antarikshe charasi suuryastvam jyotishhaam patih || 2.9 || O Prana , You are Indra ; you are Rudra , too, in prowess. You are also their Protector. As the sun you move about in the sky and you are the lord of all luminous bodies.  

PRANA GLORIFIED (3):

PRANA GLORIFIED (3) yadaa tvam-abhivarshhasyathemaah praana te prajaah | aanandaruupaastishhthanti kaamaayaannam bhavishhyati iti || 2.10 || O Prana , when, you pour down rain, all living beings are delighted, who think that there will be as much food as they would like to have.  

PRANA GLORIFIED (4):

PRANA GLORIFIED (4) vraatyastvam praanaikarshhirattaa vishvasya satpatih | vayamaadyasya daataarah pita tvam maatarishva nah || 2.11 || O Prana , you are by nature pure. You are the sacred ekarshi fire, the consumer of everything, the gracious Lord of the world. We offer you oblations, O all-pervading Air, you are our father.  

PRANA GLORIFIED (5):

PRANA GLORIFIED (5) yaa te tanuurvaachi pratishhthitaa yaa shrotre yaa cha chakshushhi | yaa cha manasi santataa shivaam taam kuruu motkramiih || 2.12 || Make auspicious that form of yours which abides in our speech, in our hearing, in our seeing and which also pervades the mind. Please do not go away from us!

PRANA GLORIFIED (6):

PRANA GLORIFIED (6) praanasyedam vashe sarvam tridive yat.h pratishhthitam.h | maateva putraan.h rakshasva shriishcha pragyaam cha vidhehi na iti || 2.13 || All that exists here is under the control of Prana and also what exists in heaven. Protect us as a mother her sons; bestow upon us prosperity and wisdom.

Antonio Damasio:

Antonio Damasio

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