Kenopanishad

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Chinmaya Mission Boston Newton chapter discourse on Kenopanishad on Sunday's

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KENOPANISHAD

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Shankaracharya wrote two commentaries on Kenopanishad - Pada bhashyam and -Vakya bhashyam

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INVOCATION OM apyayantu mamangani vak pranascaksuh srotramantho balamindriyani ca sarvani. Sarvam Brahmaupanisadam maham Brahmara nirakuryam ma ma Brahma nirakarat anirakaranamastvanirakaranam me stu Tadatmani nirate ya Upanisatsu dharmah te mayi santu te mayi santu. OM Santih Santih Santih May my limbs speech prana vital air eye ear strength of all my senses grow vigorous. All everything is Brahman of the Upanishad-s. May I never deny the Brahman.

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WHY IS IT CALLED KENA OR KENOPANISHAD o ṃ kene ṣita ṃ patati pre ṣita ṃ mana ḥ…. Who makes my mind think Or By whom or whose force does this mind think KENA – ‘Who’ or ‘by Whom’

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The saving knowledge of the Upanishads is revealed as austerity restraint and dedicated . work. The one who knows and experiences it reaches liberation Verses 26-34 May my limbs speech prana vital air eye ear strength of all my senses grow vigorous. All everything is Brahman of the Upanishad-s. May I never deny the Brahman. Story about how Agni fire god Vayu wind god and Indra King of Gods are taught a lesson by the Supreme Brahman after their victory with the demons. The story brings out the fact Brahman is the essential force behind everything Verses 14-25 By whom or by what force do we see hear speak think etc It is the Ear of the Ear the Mind of the Mind the Speech of the Speech and also the Life of the Life and the Eye of the Eye. Having abandoned the sense of Self of I-ness in these and rising above sense-life the wise become Immortal Verses 1-8 Kenopanishad The one who says he ‘knows Brahman’ knows it not. The one who truly experiences Brahman achieves immortality ‘here’ and ‘now’ Verses 9-13

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PART - 1 THE INQUIRY

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3 BODIES 5 SHEATHS Gross Body • – Physical Sheath Subtle Body • Vital air Sheath  Mind Sheath  Intellect Sheath  Causal Body • – Bliss Sheath http://explorevedanta.com/vedanta-in-pictures/

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COMPONENTS OF SUBTLE BODY • 5 Organs of Knowledge • 5 Organs of Actions • 5 Pranas respiration excretion circulation speech digestion • 4 Internal Organs http://explorevedanta.com/vedanta-in-pictures/

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QUESTION –VERSE 1 o ṃ kene ṣita ṃ patati pre ṣita ṃ mana ḥ kena pr āṇa ḥ prathama ḥ praiti yukta ḥ | kene ṣit āṃ vācamim āṃ vadanti cak ṣu ḥ śrotra ṃ ka u devo yunakti || 1 || Disciple: "Who makes my mind think Who fills my body with vitality Who causes my tongue to speak Who is that Invisible one who sees through my eyes And hears through my ears"

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BY WHOM OR BY WHAT FORCE DO I SEE HEAR…THINK • What factor is enlivening ‘matter’ that is inert and insentient

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QUESTION –VERSE 2 śrotrasya śrotra ṃ manaso mano yadv āco ha v āca ṃ sa u pr āṇasya pr āṇa ścak ṣu ṣa ścak ṣu ḥ | atimucya dh īr āḥ prety āsm āllok ādam ṛt ā bhavanti || 2 || The Self is the ear of the ear The eye of the eye the mind of the mind The word of words and the life of life. Rising above the senses and the mind And renouncing separate existence The wise realize the deathless Self.

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MARS – THE OBJECT

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TELESCOPE – THE INSTRUMENT

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BOY – THE SUBJECT

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BY WHOM OR BY WHAT FORCE DO I SEE HEAR…THINK

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QUESTION –VERSE 3 na tatra cak ṣurgacchati na vāggacchati no mano na vidmo na vijānīmo yathaitadanuśiṣyādanyadeva tadviditādatho aviditādadhi | iti śuśruma pūrveṣāṃ ye nastadvyācacakṣire || 3 || The eye does not go there nor speech nor mind. We do not know That. We do not know how to instruct one about It.

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QUESTION –VERSES 4-8 What speech cannot reveal but what reveals speech… What cannot be seen by the eye but by which the eyes are able to see… What cannot be heard by the ear but by which the ears are able to hear… That which one breathes not with his breath but by which breath is breathed… What one cannot feel with the mind but because of which they say that the mind feels… know THAT alone as Brahman and not this that people worship here

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PRACTICAL TIPS

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PART - 2 Knowledge vs Experience

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KNOWING TO BIKE IS NOT THE SAME AS BIKING

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KNOWING TO SKI IS NOT THE SAME AS REALLY SKIING

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KAWARAU BRIDGE – NEW ZEALAND

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KNOWING TO BUNGY JUMP IS NOT THE SAME AS BUNGY JUMPING

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IF YOU THINK YOU KNOW BRAHMAN THEN YOU DON’T KNOW BRAHMAN Teacher: If you think "I know the Self" you know not. All you can see is his external form. Continue therefore your meditation. I do no think that ‘I know it well’. But not that I do not know I know too. Who amongst us comprehends It both as the Not Known and as the Known – He comprehends It.

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KEY MESSAGES OF PART II 1. Knowing Brahman and experiencing Brahman are different 91011 2. Realize Brahman by being a ‘witness’ to all thoughts “intuit Brahman in and through every modification of the mind” Verse 12 3. Realize Brahman ‘here’ and ‘now’ 13

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PARTS – 3 4 Story of Agni Vayu and Indra

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DEVAS ASURAS • Asuras signify forces of darkness  Hatred Prejudice Anger Jealousy  Selfishness Egoism Vanity etc. • Devas signify forces of light  Love T olerance Patience Kindness  Charity Piety Sympathy etc.

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AGNI – LORD OF FIRE • Agni is the presiding deity of the sense of sight and speech • The ‘eye’ is blind without the ‘eye of the eye’ or Brahman • The ‘speech’ is dumb without the ‘speaker of the speech’ or Brahman

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VAYU OR LORD OF WIND • Vayu is the presiding deity of the sense of smell and reproductive organs • We cannot smell without the power of the Brahman behind the sense of smell • We are impotent without the power of the Brahman enlivening our reproductive organs

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INDRA – LORD OF THE MIND • Indra is the presiding deity of the mind or the lord of all sense organs • We cannot feel or think without the power of the Brahman behind the mind and intellect • Indra also represents the Jivatma • Brahman disappears when the Jivatma appears – they are one and the same

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UMA OR LADY OF KNOWLEDGE • Uma signifies the Lady of Knowledge • Uma instructs Indra only after he is purified – surrenders himself in pursuit of the true knowledge • noble will • divine determination • sincere heart • desire-less mind • vigilant intellect

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MESSAGE FROM THE STORY • Fight between devas and asuras signify the battle between our good and evil qualities • Brahman is beyond the senses mind and intellect • When you approach Brahman through the sense organs and mind it vanishes • Approach Brahman with true humility and surrender and the Lord’s Grace will lead you to Brahman

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CONCLUSION • Austerity restraint and dedicated work are the foundation of the ‘saving knowledge’ of Upanishads Verse 33 • Vedas are its limbs Truth is its abode Verse 33 • One who knows this destroys sin and is ever established in Brahman Verse 34

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KENOPANISHAD SUMMARY

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The saving knowledge of the Upanishads is revealed as austerity restraint and dedicated . work. The one who knows and experiences it reaches liberation Verses 26-34 May my limbs speech prana vital air eye ear strength of all my senses grow vigorous. All everything is Brahman of the Upanishad-s. May I never deny the Brahman. Story about how Agni fire god Vayu wind god and Indra King of Gods are taught a lesson by the Supreme Brahman after their victory with the demons. The story brings out the fact Brahman is the essential force behind everything Verses 14-25 By whom or by what force do we see hear speak think etc It is the Ear of the Ear the Mind of the Mind the Speech of the Speech and also the Life of the Life and the Eye of the Eye. Having abandoned the sense of Self of I-ness in these and rising above sense-life the wise become Immortal Verses 1-8 Kenopanishad The one who says he ‘knows Brahman’ knows it not. The one who truly experiences Brahman achieves immortality ‘here’ and ‘now’ Verses 9-13

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śrotrasya śrotra ṃ manaso mano yadv āco ha v āca ṃ sa u pr āṇasya pr āṇa ścak ṣu ṣa ścak ṣu ḥ | atimucya dh īr āḥ prety āsm āllok ādam ṛt ā bhavanti || 2 || Guru: It is the Ear of the Ear the Mind of the Mind the Speech of the Speech and also the Life of the Life and the Eye of the Eye. Having abandoned the sense of Self of I-ness in these and rising above sense-life the wise become Immortal o ṃ kene ṣita ṃ patati pre ṣita ṃ mana ḥ kena pr āṇa ḥ prathama ḥ praiti yukta ḥ | kene ṣit āṃ vācamim āṃ vadanti cak ṣu ḥ śrotra ṃ ka u devo yunakti || 1 || Disciple: Who makes my mind think Who fills my body with vitality Who causes my tongue to speak Who is that invisible one who sees through my eyes and hears through my ears tasai tapo dama ḥ karmeti prati ṣṭh ā ved āḥ sarv āṅg āni satyam āyatanam || 33 || yov ā et āmeva ṃ ved āpahatya p āpm ānamanante svarge loke jyeye pratiti ṣṭhati pratiti ṣṭhati ||34 || Austerity restraint and dedicated work – these are the foundations of It – the Saving Knowledge of the Upanishads. The Vedas are its limb and Truth is its abode. Verily he who knows It thus destroys sin and is established in Brahman the Boundless the Highest and the Blissful – Yes he is established in it. KENOPANISHAD – VERSES TO CONTEMPLATE UPON

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KENOPANISHAD - TRANSLATION SANSKRIT - ENGLISH

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KENOPANISHAD - TRANSLATION PART - 1

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INVOCATION OM apyayantu mamangani vak pranascaksuh srotramantho balamindriyani ca sarvani. Sarvam Brahmaupanisadam maham Brahmara nirakuryam ma ma Brahma nirakarat anirakaranamastvanirakaranam me stu Tadatmani nirate ya Upanisatsu dharmah te mayi santu te mayi santu. OM Santih Santih Santih May my limbs speech prana vital air eye ear strength of all my senses grow vigorous. All everything is Brahman of the Upanishad-s. May I never deny the Brahman.

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QUESTION –VERSE 1 o ṃ kene ṣita ṃ patati pre ṣita ṃ mana ḥ kena pr āṇa ḥ prathama ḥ praiti yukta ḥ | kene ṣit āṃ vācamim āṃ vadanti cak ṣu ḥ śrotra ṃ ka u devo yunakti || 1 || Disciple: Who makes my mind think Who fills my body with vitality Who causes my tongue to speak Who is that invisible one who sees through my eyes and hears through my ears

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QUESTION – VERSE 2 śrotrasya śrotra ṃ manaso mano yadv āco ha v āca ṃ sa u pr āṇasya pr āṇa ścak ṣu ṣa ścak ṣu ḥ | atimucya dh īr āḥ prety āsm āllok ādam ṛt ā bhavanti || 2 || Guru: It is the Ear of the Ear the Mind of the Mind the Speech of the Speech and also the Life of the Life and the Eye of the Eye. Having abandoned the sense of Self of I-ness in these and rising above sense-life the wise become Immortal

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QUESTION –VERSE 3 na tatra cak ṣurgacchati na vāggacchati no mano na vidmo na vij ān īmo yathaitadanu śi ṣy ādanyadeva tadvidit ādatho avidit ādadhi | iti śu śruma p ūrve ṣ āṃ ye nastadvy ācacak ṣire || 3 || The eye does not go there nor speech nor mind. We do not know That. We do not know how to instruct one about It.

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QUESTION –VERSE 4 yadv āc ānabhyudita ṃ yena vāgabhyudyate | tadeva brahma tva ṃ viddhi neda ṃ yadidamup āsate || 4 || "That which makes the tongue speak but cannot be Spoken by the tongue know that as the Self. This Self is not someone other than you.”

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QUESTION –VERSE 5 yanmanas ā na manute yen āhurmano matam | tadeva brahma tva ṃ viddhi neda ṃ yadidamup āsate || 5 || "That which makes the mind think but cannot be Thought by the mind that is the Self indeed. This Self is not someone other than you.”

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QUESTION –VERSE 6 yaccak ṣuṣā na pa śyati yena cak ṣūm ̐ṣi pa śyati | tadeva brahma tva ṃ viddhi neda ṃ yadidamup āsate || 6 || "That which makes the eye see but cannot be Seen by the eye that is the Self indeed. This Self is not someone other than you”.

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QUESTION –VERSE 7 yacchrotre ṇa na ś ṛṇoti yena śrotramim ̐śrutam | tadeva brahma tva ṃ viddhi neda ṃ yadidamup āsate || 7 || "That which makes the ear hear but cannot be Heard by the ear that is the Self indeed. This Self is not someone other than you.”

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QUESTION –VERSE 8 yatprāṇena na prāṇiti yena prāṇa ḥ pra ṇīyate | tadeva brahma tva ṃ viddhi neda ṃ yadidamup āsate || 8 || "That which makes you draw breath but cannot be Drawn by your breath that is the Self indeed. This self is not someone other than you."

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KENOPANISHAD - TRANSLATION PART – 1I

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QUESTION –VERSE 9 yadi manyase suvedeti daharamev āpi n ūnam | tva ṃ vettha brahma ṇo r ūpam yadasya tva ṃ yadasya deve ṣvatha nu m īm ām ̐syemeva te manye viditam ॥ 9 ॥ Teacher: If you think "I know the Self" you know not. All you can see is his external form. Continue therefore your meditation.

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QUESTION –VERSE 10 n āha ṃ manye suvedeti no na vedeti veda ca | yo nastadveda tadveda no na vedeti veda ca || 10 || I do no think that ‘I know it well’. But not that I do not know I know too. Who amongst us comprehends It both as the Not Known and as the Known – He comprehends It.

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QUESTION – VERSE 11 yasy āmata ṃ tasya mata ṃ mata ṃ yasya na veda sa ḥ | avijñ āta ṃ vij ānatāṃ vijñ ātamavij ānat ām || 11 | The one who understands It does not comprehend It. The one who does not understand It feels he has comprehended It. It is the unknown to the Master of True Knowledge but to the ignorant It is the known.

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QUESTION – VERSE 12 pratibodhavidita ṃ matamam ṛtatva ṃ hi vindate | ātman ā vindate v īrya ṃ vidyay ā vindatem ṛtam || 12 || Indeed he attains immortality who intuits It in and through every modification of the mind. Through the Atman he obtains real strength and through Knowledge immortality.

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QUESTION –VERSE 13 iha cedaved īdatha satyamasti na cedih āved īnmahat ī vina ṣṭi ḥ | bh ūte ṣu bh ūte ṣu vicitya dh īrāḥ prety āsm āllok ādam ṛt ā bhavanti || 13 || If one Knows That Brahman here in this world then the true end of all human aspirations is gained. If one knows not That Brahman here great is the destruction. The wise seeing the one Atman in all beings rise from sense-life and become immortal.

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KENOPANISHAD - TRANSLATION PART - III

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QUESTION – VERSE 14 brahma ha devebhyo vijigye tasya ha brahma ṇo vijaye dev ā amah īyanta | ta aik ṣant āsm ākamev āya ṃ vijayosm ākamev āya ṃ mahimeti || 14 || It is said that Brahman once won a victory for the Gods over the demons. Though the victory was due to Brahman the Gods became elated by it and thought: To us belongs the victory to us belongs the glory.

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QUESTION –VERSE 15 taddhai ṣ āṃ vijajñau tebhyo ha pr ādurbabh ūva tanna vyaj ānata kimida ṃ yak ṣamiti || 15 || Brahman knowing their vanity appeared before them but they did not understand who that Adorable Spirit was.

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QUESTION –VERSES 16-17 tegnimabruvan j ātaveda etadvij ān īhi kimetadyak ṣamiti tatheti || 16 || tadabhyadravattamabhyavadatkos ītyagnirv ā ahamasm ītyabrav ījj ātaved ā vā ahamasm īti || 17 || They said to Agni thus: ‘Oh Jataveda All Knower find out what this Great Spirit is.’ He agreed. Agni hastened to the Spirit. The Spirit asked him who he was and Agni replied ‘Verily I am Agni the Omniscient.’

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QUESTION –VERSES18 tasmim ̐stvayi ki ṃ vīryamit yap īdam ̐sarva ṃ daheya ṃ yadida ṃ p ṛthivyāmiti || 18 || He Brahman in the form of Yaksa asked him: ‘What power has thou Who art of such a nature’ Agni replied ‘I can even burn whatsoever there is on Earth.’

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QUESTION –VERSE 19 tasmai t ṛṇa ṃ nidadh āvetaddaheti tadupaprey āya sarvajavena tanna śa śāka dagdhu ṃ sa tata eva nivav ṛte naitada śaka ṃ vijñātu ṃ yadetadyak ṣamiti || 19 || He Brahman placed a blade of grass before him saying “Burn it” Agni dashed at it with all his power. He could not burn it. So he returned to the Gods saying ‘I could not find out who that Adorable Spirit was.’

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QUESTION –VERSES 20-21 atha v āyumabruvanv āyavetadvij ān īhi kimetadyak ṣamiti tatheti || 20 || tadabhyadravattamabhyavadatkos īti vāyurv ā ahamasm ītyabrav īnm ātari śvā vā ahamasm īti || 21 || The Deva’s then said to Vayu Wind ‘Oh Lord of the Winds find out who this Adorable Spirit is’. He agreed. Vayu hastened to the Spirit. The Spirit asked him who he was and Vayu replied ‘I am Vayu I am really Matarisva’ The Trodder of the Skies

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QUESTION – VERSE 22 tasmim ̐stvayi ki ṃ v īryamity ap īdam ̐sarvam ādad īya yadida ṃ p ṛthivy āmiti || 22 || ‘What power resides in thee why art thou of such a nature’ asked the Spirit. ‘Why I can blow away everything whatever there is on Earth.’ said Vayu.

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QUESTION – VERSE 23 tasmai t ṛṇa ṃ nidadh āvetad ādatsveti tadupaprey āya sarvajavena tanna śa śāk ādatu ṃ sa tata eva nivav ṛte naitada śaka ṃ vijñ ātu ṃ yadetadyak ṣamiti || 23 || The Yaksa placed a blade of grass before him saying ‘Blow this away.’ He approached it with all his power but was not able to move it. So he returned to the Gods and reported ‘I could not find out who that Great Spirit was’.

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QUESTION – VERSE 24 athendramabruvanmaghavannetadvij ān īhi kimetadyak ṣamiti tatheti tadabhyadravattasm āttirodadhe || 24 || Then the Gods said to Indra ‘the Chief of Gods Oh Maghavan worshipful or the possessor of great wealth and power find out who that Adorable Spirit is.’ He agreed and hastened towards the Spirit but the Spirit disappeared from his view.

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QUESTION – VERSE 25 sa tasminnevāk āśe striyam ājag āma bahu śobham ān āmum ām ̐haimavat īṃ t ām ̐hov āca kimetadyak ṣamiti || 25 || And in that very spot he beheld a woman Uma the damsel fair – the daughter of the snowy mountain Himavan. He asked her who this Adorable Spirit could be

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KENOPANISHAD - TRANSLATION PART - IV

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QUESTION – VERSE 26 s ā brahmeti hov āca brahma ṇovā etadvijaye mah īyadhvamiti tato haiva vid āñcak āra brahmeti || 26 || ‘Brahman’ She exclaimed. ‘Indeed through Brahman’s victory have you gained greatness Then alone he understood that the Adorable Spirit Yaksa was ‘Brahman’.

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QUESTION – VERSE 27 tasm ādvā ete dev ā atitar āmiv āny āndev ānyadagnirv āyurindraste hyenannedi ṣṭha ṃ paspar śuste hyenatprathamo vid āñcak āra brahmeti || 27 || Therefore verily these Gods Agni Vayu and Indira excel the other Gods for they approached the Spirit the manifestation of the Supreme the nearest and they were the first to know Him as Brahman.

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QUESTION –VERSE 28 tasm ādvā indrotitar āmiv āny āndev ānsa hyenannedi ṣṭha ṃ paspar śa sa hyenatprathamo vid āñcak āra brahmeti || 28 || And therefore Indeed Indra excels other Gods for he approached the Spirit nearest and he was the first to know him as Brahman.

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QUESTION –VERSE 29 tasyai ṣa āde śo yadetadvidyuto vyadyutad ā u it īn nyam īmi ṣad ā u ityadhidaivatam || 29 || This is the description of Brahman. He shone forthk lie the splendor of the lightning He disappeared within the twinkling of the eye. This is the comparison of the Brahman with reference to the Deva’s His manifestation as Cosmic Powers.

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QUESTION – VERSE 30 ath ādhy ātma ṃ yaddetadgacchat īva ca manonena caitadupasmaratyabh īk ṣṇam sa ṅkalpa ḥ || 30 || Now as regards this description from the point of view of His manifestation as Atman within the body – ‘as one thinks of Brahman by the mind and as speedily as the mind wills’.

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QUESTION –VERSE 31 taddha tadvana ṃ n āma tadvanamityup āsitavya ṃ sa ya etadeva ṃ ved ābhi haina ṃ sarvāṇi bh ūt āni sa ṃv āñchanti || 31 | Brahman is well known as Tadvanam the One who is to be worshipped as the Atman of all living beings. So it is to be meditated upon as Tadvana. All love him who know It thus.

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QUESTION – VERSE 32 upani ṣada ṃ bho br ūh ītyukt ā ta upani ṣadbr āhm īṃ vāva ta upani ṣadamabr ūmeti || 32 || Disciple: Sir teach me the Saving Knowledge. Preceptor: The Saving Knowledge has been imparted to you. Verily we have imparted the Saving Knowledge of Brahman to you.

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QUESTION – VERSE 33 tasai tapo dama ḥ karmeti prati ṣṭh ā vedāḥ sarvāṅg āni satyam āyatanam || 33 || Austerity restraint and dedicated work – these are the foundations of It – the Saving Knowledge of the Upanishads. The Vedas are its limb and Truth is its abode.

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QUESTION – VERSE 34 yov ā et āmeva ṃ ved āpahatya p āpm ānamanante svarge loke jyeye pratiti ṣṭhati pratiti ṣṭhati || 34 || Verily he who knows It thus destroys sin and is established in Brahman the Boundless the Highest and the Blissful – Yes he is established in it.

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