Biological Molecules worksheet powerpoint

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Biological Molecules:

Biological Molecules What are the building blocks of life?

Why?:

Why? From the smallest single-celled organisms to the tallest tree, all life depends on the properties and reactions of four classes of organic (carbon-based) compounds-carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. These organic molecules are the building blocks of all living things, and are responsible for most of the structure and functions of the body, including energy storage, insulation, growth, repair, communication, and transfer of hereditary information. Simple organic molecules can be joined together to form all the essential biological molecules needed for life.

Molecules of Life:

Molecules of Life Carbohydrates (monosaccharides)

Lipids:

Lipids Triglyceride

Proteins (amino acids):

Proteins (amino acids) Cysteine <Variable R chain Carboxyl acid group^ Amine group

Nucleic Acids (nucleotides):

Nucleic Acids (nucleotides)

Slide7:

Use model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. carbohydrate- C, H, O b. lipid-

Slide8:

Use model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. carbohydrate- C, H, O b. lipid- C, H, O

Slide9:

Use model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. carbohydrate- C, H, O b. lipid- C, H, O c. amino acid-

Slide10:

Use model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. carbohydrate- C, H, O b. lipid- C, H, O c. amino acid- C, H, O, N

Slide11:

Use model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. carbohydrate- C, H, O b. lipid- C, H, O c. amino acid- C, H, O, N d. nucleic acid-

Slide12:

Use model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. carbohydrate- C, H, O b. lipid- C, H, O c. amino acid- C, H, O, N d. nucleic acid- C, H, O, N, P

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2. Which type of molecule includes an example with a long-chain carbon backbone?

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2. Which type of molecule includes an example with a long-chain carbon backbone? Fatty acids

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3. In the molecule referred to in the previous question, what is the dominant element attached to the carbon backbone?

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3. In the molecule referred to in the previous question, what is the dominant element attached to the carbon backbone? Hydrogen

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4. The fatty acid chain of the lipids is often referred to as a hydrocarbon chain. Discuss with your group why the chain is given this name and write a one-sentence definition for a hydrocarbon. 2 minutes

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4. The fatty acid chain of the lipids is often referred to as a hydrocarbon chain. Discuss with your group why the chain is given this name and write a one-sentence definition for a hydrocarbon. Because it is made of mainly carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded in a long chain. Hydrocarbon means hydrogen and carbon.

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5. Which molecule has a central carbon atom with four different components around it?

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5. Which molecule has a central carbon atom with four different components around it? Amino acids

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6. Which molecule has a sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group?

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6. Which molecule has a sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group? Nucleic acids

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7. Discuss with your group members some similarities among all four types of molecules. List as many as you can. 2 minutes

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7. Discuss with your group members some similarities among all four types of molecules. List as many as you can. All have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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7. Discuss with your group members some similarities among all four types of molecules. List as many as you can. All have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Each carbon forms four bonds with other atoms.

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7. Discuss with your group members some similarities among all four types of molecules. List as many as you can. All have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Each carbon forms four bonds with other atoms. All are organic.

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8. What is the chemical formula of the first carbohydrate molecule shown?

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8. What is the chemical formula of the first carbohydrate molecule shown?

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9. What three structural groups shown do all amino acids have in common?

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9. What three structural groups shown do all amino acids have in common? Carboxyl group Amine group Variable R group

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10. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, and each one only varies in the structure of the R side chain. Two amino acids are shown in model 1. What are the R side chains in each?

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10. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids, and each one only varies in the structure of the R side chain. Two amino acids are shown in model 1. What are the R side chains in each?

Read This!:

Read This! During chemical reactions, the bonds in molecules are continually broken and reformed. To break a bond, energy must be absorbed. When bonds are formed, energy is released. If more energy is released than absorbed during a chemical change, the process can be used as a source of energy. A general rule for processes such as respiration is the more carbon atoms there are in a molecule, the more energy that molecule can provide to the organism when it is used as food.

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11. Using the information from above, is a carbohydrate or a lipid more likely to be a good source of energy for an organism?

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11. Using the information from above, is a carbohydrate or a lipid more likely to be a good source of energy for an organism? Lipids, because they contain long chains of carbon atoms which release energy when the bonds between are broken.

Biochemical Reactions:

Biochemical Reactions

Glycosidic Bond:

Glycosidic Bond

Peptide Bond:

Peptide Bond

Ester Bond:

Ester Bond

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12. What are the reactants of reaction A?

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12. What are the reactants of reaction A? Glucose and Fructose

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13. What are the products of reaction A?

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13. What are the products of reaction A? Sucrose and water

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14. Each of the reactants in reaction A is a single sugar molecule, also called a monosaccharide. What prefix before saccharide would you use to describe sucrose?

Slide45:

14. Each of the reactants in reaction A is a single sugar molecule, also called a monosaccharide. What prefix before saccharide would you use to describe sucrose? Di- meaning two

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15. What are the reactants of reaction B?

Slide47:

15. What are the reactants of reaction B? Amino acid 1 and Amino acid 2

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16. When the two molecules in reaction B are joined together, what other two molecules are produced?

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16. When the two molecules in reaction B are joined together, what other two molecules are produced? Dipeptide and water

Slide50:

17. What product do all three reactions in model 2 have in common?

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17. What product do all three reactions in model 2 have in common? Water

Read This!:

Read This! When sugars are joined together the new bond that forms is a glycosidic bond. When amino acids are joined the new bond that forms is a peptide bond. When fatty acids are joined to a glycerol the bond that holds them is an ester bond.

Slide53:

18. On the diagrams in model 2 circle and label the glycosidic , peptide and ester bonds.

Slide54:

18. On the diagrams in model 2 circle and label the glycosidic , peptide and ester bonds.

Slide55:

18. On the diagrams in model 2 circle and label the glycosidic , peptide and ester bonds.

Slide56:

19. These reactions are all referred to as dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions. With your group, develop an explanation for why these terms are used to describe these reactions. 2 minutes.

Slide57:

19. These reactions are all referred to as dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions. With your group, develop an explanation for why these terms are used to describe these reactions. 2 minutes. Because they remove water, dehydration- De- away from hydrate- water Condensation- when water droplets come together

Slide59:

20. These reactions can also be reversed, breaking the large molecule into its individual molecules. What substance would need to be added in order to reverse the reaction?

Slide60:

20. These reactions can also be reversed, breaking the large molecule into its individual molecules. What substance would need to be added in order to reverse the reaction? Water

Slide61:

21. Lysis means to split or separate. What prefix would you add to lysis to mean separate or split using water?

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21. Lysis means to split or separate. What prefix would you add to lysis to mean separate or split using water? Hydro- means water

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22. Using your answers to the previous two questions, what word is used to describe the reaction that uses water to break apart a large molecule?

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22. Using your answers to the previous two questions, what word is used to describe the reaction that uses water to break apart a large molecule? Hydrolysis Hydro- meaning water lysis - meaning to split

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23. Metabolism is the collective term used to describe all the chemical reactions taking place inside living organisms. Why is water so important for metabolic reactions?

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23. Metabolism is the collective term used to describe all the chemical reactions taking place inside living organisms. Why is water so important for metabolic reactions? Because water is used to split biological molecules to begin making it into energy.

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24. We store excess food in our body either in the form of carbohydrates ( in muscles and the liver) or as fat (adipose tissue). When our body needs additional energy it uses the carbohydrate source first as a source of “quick” energy, then the fat. Why do you think carbohydrates are used as a source of quick energy rather than fat. Use complete sentences and scientific terminology in your response.

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24. We store excess food in our body either in the form of carbohydrates ( in muscles and the liver) or as fat (adipose tissue). When our body needs additional energy it uses the carbohydrate source first as a source of “quick” energy, then the fat. Why do you think carbohydrates are used as a source of quick energy rather than fat. Use complete sentences and scientific terminology in your response. It is easier to break down carbohydrates by hydrolysis into individual monosaccharides than to break down the long chains of fatty acids in a lipid.

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Fatty acid

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25. Look at the two types of fatty acids below, saturated and unsaturated. What is the difference between the two?

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25. Look at the two types of fatty acids below, saturated and unsaturated. What is the difference between the two? Saturated fatty acids have at least two hydrogen attached to every carbon atom.

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26. Saturated fats are solid fats, like the animal fats lard and butter, whereas unsaturated fats are more fluid and form oils, such as vegetable oil. Trans fats are plant oils that are artificially solidified to make them suitable for baking purposed. In recent years trans fats have been associated with negative health issues and are not as widely used. Explain in simple molecular terms what would have to be done to a plant oil to transform it to a trans fat..

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26. Saturated fats are solid fats, like the animal fats lard and butter, whereas unsaturated fats are more fluid and form oils, such as vegetable oil. Trans fats are plant oils that are artificially solidified to make them suitable for baking purposed. In recent years trans fats have been associated with negative health issues and are not as widely used. Explain in simple molecular terms what would have to be done to a plant oil to transform it to a trans fat. They add hydrogen gas which bonds to the carbon atoms making it saturated.

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