Cell Processes and Energy

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Cell Processes and Energy :

Cell Processes and Energy

Chemical Compounds in Cells:

Chemical Compounds in Cells Chemicals are the basic building blocks of cells


Elements Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances


Atoms The smallest unit of an element


Compound Two or more elements combined


Molecule The smallest unit of a compound

Organic Compounds:

Organic Compounds Compounds which contain carbon and are found in living things

Inorganic Compounds:

Inorganic Compounds Compounds that do not contain the element carbon


Proteins Large organic molecules made of chains of amino acids Foods high in protein include meats, eggs, cheese, nuts and beans Found in cells, especially muscle cells

Amino Acids:

Amino Acids 20 common types In different combinations they make up all the different types of proteins and enzymes


Enzymes A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing


Carbohydrates An energy rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Sugars and starches In foods, found in potatoes, breads, noodles, fruit and vegetables Components of cell walls of plants


Lipids Fats, oils and waxes Contains a lot of energy Components of cell membrane

Nucleic Acids:

Nucleic Acids Very large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus Make up DNA and RNA


Water Without water most chemical reactions within cells could not take place Necessary for life to exist Helps cell keep their size and shape

The Cell and Its Environment:

The Cell and Its Environment The cell membrane separates the cell from its environment

Selectively Permeable:

Selectively Permeable Some substances can pass through cell membrane while others are kept out


Diffusion Main method by which small molecules move into and out of a cell Process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration


Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an are of high water concentration to lower water concentration

Passive Transport:

Passive Transport The movement of materials through a cell movement without using energy

Active Transport:

Active Transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy


Engulfing The process by which some cells surround and take food substances in


Photosynthesis The process by which a plant cell captures sunlight and changes it into food energy Requires carbon dioxide, water, sunlight and chlorophyll Makes sugars and oxygen


Glucose The type of sugar made during photosynthesis


Pigments Chlorophyll and other colored substances inside plant cell which absorb sunlight May be green, yellow, orange, red or purple


Stomata Small openings on the surface of a leaf through which carbon dioxide enters the plant


Respiration The process by which cell break down simple food molecules and release the energy they contain


Fermentation The process some cells use to break down food molecules without using oxygen

Alcoholic Fermentation:

Alcoholic Fermentation One type of fermentation used by yeast and some other unicellular organisms Makes alcohol as a by product

Lactic Acid Fermentation:

Lactic Acid Fermentation Takes place when your body is working to hard and muscle cells do not have enough oxygen Make lactic acid as a by product which makes muscles burn and ache

Cell Division:

Cell Division

Cell Cycle:

Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division of cells


Interphase During interphase the cell grows to it mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into to cells

DNA Replication:

DNA Replication When all DNA inside of a cell is copied or duplicated


Chromosomes The shortened, condensed strands of DNA Resembles an “x”


Chromatid Each identical strand of a chromosome


Mitosis The stage during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei One copy is then distributed to each of the new daughter cells


Prophase When chromatin condenses to form chromosomes and the nuclear membrane begins to break down


Metaphase When the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell


Anaphase When the chromosomes split in two and move to opposite ends of the cell


Telophase The chromosomes begin to stretch out and a new nuclear membrane forms around them


Cytokinesis During cell division, when the cell actually splits in two

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