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Premium member Presentation Transcript Cell Processes and Energy : Cell Processes and EnergyChemical Compounds in Cells: Chemical Compounds in Cells Chemicals are the basic building blocks of cellsElements: Elements Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substancesAtoms: Atoms The smallest unit of an elementCompound: Compound Two or more elements combinedMolecule: Molecule The smallest unit of a compoundOrganic Compounds: Organic Compounds Compounds which contain carbon and are found in living thingsInorganic Compounds: Inorganic Compounds Compounds that do not contain the element carbonProteins: Proteins Large organic molecules made of chains of amino acids Foods high in protein include meats, eggs, cheese, nuts and beans Found in cells, especially muscle cellsAmino Acids: Amino Acids 20 common types In different combinations they make up all the different types of proteins and enzymesEnzymes: Enzymes A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thingCarbohydrates: Carbohydrates An energy rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Sugars and starches In foods, found in potatoes, breads, noodles, fruit and vegetables Components of cell walls of plantsLipids: Lipids Fats, oils and waxes Contains a lot of energy Components of cell membraneNucleic Acids: Nucleic Acids Very large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus Make up DNA and RNAWater: Water Without water most chemical reactions within cells could not take place Necessary for life to exist Helps cell keep their size and shapeThe Cell and Its Environment: The Cell and Its Environment The cell membrane separates the cell from its environmentSelectively Permeable: Selectively Permeable Some substances can pass through cell membrane while others are kept outDiffusion: Diffusion Main method by which small molecules move into and out of a cell Process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to lower concentrationOsmosis: Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from an are of high water concentration to lower water concentrationPassive Transport: Passive Transport The movement of materials through a cell movement without using energyActive Transport: Active Transport The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energyEngulfing: Engulfing The process by which some cells surround and take food substances inPhotosynthesis: Photosynthesis The process by which a plant cell captures sunlight and changes it into food energy Requires carbon dioxide, water, sunlight and chlorophyll Makes sugars and oxygenGlucose: Glucose The type of sugar made during photosynthesisPigments: Pigments Chlorophyll and other colored substances inside plant cell which absorb sunlight May be green, yellow, orange, red or purpleStomata: Stomata Small openings on the surface of a leaf through which carbon dioxide enters the plantRespiration: Respiration The process by which cell break down simple food molecules and release the energy they containFermentation: Fermentation The process some cells use to break down food molecules without using oxygenAlcoholic Fermentation: Alcoholic Fermentation One type of fermentation used by yeast and some other unicellular organisms Makes alcohol as a by productLactic Acid Fermentation: Lactic Acid Fermentation Takes place when your body is working to hard and muscle cells do not have enough oxygen Make lactic acid as a by product which makes muscles burn and acheCell Division: Cell DivisionCell Cycle: Cell Cycle The regular sequence of growth and division of cellsInterphase: Interphase During interphase the cell grows to it mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into to cellsDNA Replication: DNA Replication When all DNA inside of a cell is copied or duplicatedChromosomes: Chromosomes The shortened, condensed strands of DNA Resembles an “x”Chromatid: Chromatid Each identical strand of a chromosomeMitosis: Mitosis The stage during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei One copy is then distributed to each of the new daughter cellsProphase: Prophase When chromatin condenses to form chromosomes and the nuclear membrane begins to break downMetaphase: Metaphase When the chromosomes line up across the center of the cellAnaphase: Anaphase When the chromosomes split in two and move to opposite ends of the cellTelophase: Telophase The chromosomes begin to stretch out and a new nuclear membrane forms around themCytokinesis: Cytokinesis During cell division, when the cell actually splits in two You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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