MICROPHOTONICS AND SILICON MICROPHOTONICS: MICROPHOTONICS AND SILICON MICROPHOTONICS Presented By, AREENA ANTONY 7 th Semester Electronics And Communication Engineering Mahatma Gandhi University College Of Engineering Thodupuzha . DATE : 5 th August 2010 : It is the science of directing and controlling microscopic photons of electromagnetic energy on a microscopic scale It offers speed, immunity to interference, increased bandwidth, parallel processing and enhanced data storage. MICROPHOTONICS The basic foundations on which micro photonics lies are: The basic foundations on which micro photonics lies are TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION PHOTONIC SWITCH PHOTONIC TRANSISTOR TRANSISTOR LASER HOLOGRAPHIC STORAGE TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION: TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION It is the phenomenon by which the light is reflected back into the optical fibre This phenomenon varies for fibres based on the critical angle of the fibre Fresnel reflection can also be used PHOTONIC SWITCH: PHOTONIC SWITCH Electronic switches create bottlenecks at the central hubs Photonic switches can receive and transmit light signals Photonic switches are accompanied by waveguides : PHOTONIC SWITCH PHOTONIC TRANSISTOR: PHOTONIC TRANSISTOR Is accomplished with the help of red and blue lasers. Laser beams are focused on a film composed of metal and plastic layers with a layer of silver oxide. One of the laser beams regulate the other. TRANSISTOR LASER: TRANSISTOR LASER Has a quantum well in the base. Can produce both electric and optical signals e-h recombination take place in a large amount in quantum well which emits light. This light get reflected by the mirrors at the walls of the quantum well Slide 10: HOLOGRAPHY It is used to collect and store data. This uses a data beam and a reference beam. Holographic memory devices can store trillions of bytes. Holographic storage has the potential to replace the magnetic storage ADVANTAGES: ADVANTAGES This can increase the speed of processing This can reduce the size and cost of photonic circuits It can lead to new revolutions in all the technical fields Slide 14: DISADVANTAGES Undesired slowness of light High expense in manufacturing Lack of advanced technologies Disadvantages of silicon microelectronics :: Disadvantages of silicon microelectronics : Temperature dependency High scale integration will cause Critical propagation delay Over heating Information latency => =>SILICON MICROPHOTONICS: => => SILICON MICROPHOTONICS INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION It combines the power of silicon microelectronics with advantages of photonics Light is made to propagate through silicon materials – it use silicon as optical medium It combines both microphotonics and silicon microelectronic components on a single silicon chip Why silicon?: Why silicon? Silicon is widely available Over all cost of production is low Silicon is transperant on the high frequency region of the infrared Silicon microphotonics components can made using existing semiconductor fabrication techniques : OPTICAL GUIDING Silicon is transparent in infrared region It has a refractive index of about 3.5 These properties permit us to make optical silicon waveguides having dimensions of few nanometers Core and cladding is made of silicon with different doping densities to provide different refractive indices and light is guided completely through this waveguide The phenomenon underlying is total internal reflection Within a single silicon crystal, silicon and silica will act as core and cladding respectively a: a PROPERTIES 1. Kerr nonlinearity It’s a focusing nonlinearity In this refractive index of silicon increases with optical intensity It is used to concentrate light into a very small cross sectional area It is used for optical parametric amplifications and wavelength conversion Disadvantage – modulational instability a: a 2. Two photon absorption Process in which a pair of photon can act to excite an electron-hole pair This would result in increased number of charge carriers It is really a disadvantage as 1.It wastes light energy 2.Generates unwanted heat Its effect can be mitigated by using longer wavelengths , slot waveguides etc. a: a 3. Free charge carrier interactions Free charge carriers are unwanted in a photonics system They are produced due to TPA effect They can be removed by several methods 1.implanting Si with helium 2.using rib waveguides 4. Raman effect Phenomenon of exchanging a photon with another photon of different energy Used for amplification process APPLICATIONS: APPLICATIONS OPTICAL INTERCONNECTIONS PHOTONIC COMPUTING THz PHOTONICS LIGHT FIELD CAMERAS FEMTOSECOND LASERS TELEPORTATION OPTICAL ROUTERS AND SIGNAL PROCESSORS LONG RANGE TELECOMMUNICATION REFERENCE: REFERENCE Electronics For You www.philips.com www.optics.org www.google.com www.answers.com www.wikipedia.com : THANK YOU : Q?