Custard Apple

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Custard Apple:

Custard Apple Submitted by: Kyanam Ammani Naidu RA/08-03

Submitted to::

Submitted to: Dr. B. Joseph Professor and Head Dept. of Forestry College of Agriculture RJNR

Introduction :

Introduction Botanical name : Annona squamosa Common names : custard-apple , bullock's heart or bull's heart

Distribution:

Distribution The custard apple is believed to be a native of the West Indies . Introduced in India  from Tropical America. It is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa, Assam, and Tamil Nadu. Besides India, it is common in China, Philippines, Egypt and Central Africa .

Botanical description:

Botanical description It is erect, with a rounded or spreading crown and trunk 25-35 cm thick. Height ranges from 4.5-10 m.

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The ill-smelling leaves are deciduous, alternate, oblong or narrow-lanceolate, 10-20 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, with conspicuous veins.

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Flowers, in drooping, are fragrant, slender, with 3 outer fleshy, narrow petals 2-3 cm) long; light-green externally and pale-yellow with a dark-red or purple spot on the inside at the base. The flowers never fully open .

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The compound fruit, 8-16 cm in diameter, may be symmetrically heart-shaped, lopsided, or irregular; or nearly round, or oblate, with a deep or shallow depression at the base.

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There is a thick, cream-white layer of custardlike, somewhat granular, flesh beneath the skin is divided juicy segments, in which there is a single, hard, dark-brown or black, glossy seed, oblong and smooth

Cultivars:

Cultivars Red Sitaphal Balanagar Hybrid Washington Purandhar (Pune)

Climate:

Climate Tropical in origin Custard Apple requires hot dry climate during flowering and high humidity at fruit setting. The Custard Apple withstands drought conditions cloudy weather and also when the temperatures go below 15 o C Annual rainfall requirement 500-800mm

Soil:

Soil Custard Apple flourishes in all types of soils like shallow, sandy, but fails to grow if the subsoil is ill drained. It can grow well in deep black soils provided they are well drained .

Propagation:

Propagation Seed is the usual means of propagation. The tree also can be multiplied by grafting

Planting and Season:

Planting and Season Planting is done during rainy season. The pits of 60x60x60 cm are dug prior to monsoon Spacing of 4x4 or 5x5 or 6x6 is adopted depending on soil type

Special horticultural practices:

Special horticultural practices For better and early flowering, spray Biocil 1ml per litre - just prior to flowering. 10 to 20 ppm NAA is sprayed just prior to flowering period to reduce the flower and fruit drop. During fruit development 50 ppm GA + 5 ppm + 0.5 ppm cppu, foliar spray improves the fruit size and luster of the fruits.

Irrigation:

Irrigation Custard apple is grown as a rainfed crop. For early and bumper harvest of the crop irrigation is given.

harvest and yield:

harvest and yield The Custard apple is a climacteric fruit and harvested at the maturity state when the fruit starts to change colour from green to its varietal colour shade. A full grown tree yield above 100 fruits weighing 300 to 400 gm. The season of harvest is from August to October.

Uses:

Uses Leaves have been employed in tanning and they yield a blue or black dye. A fiber derived from the young twigs is of superior quality. Custard apple wood is yellow, rather soft, fibrous but durable and has been used to make yokes for oxen.

Medicinal Uses:

Medicinal Uses Crushed leaves or a paste of the flesh may be poulticed on boils, abscesses and ulcers. The unripe fruit is rich in tannin; is dried, pulverized and employed against diarrhea and dysentery. The bark is very astringent and the decoction is taken as a tonic and also as a remedy for diarrhea and dysentery. Fragments of the root bark are packed around the gums to relieve toothache.

Toxicity:

Toxicity The seeds are so hard that they may be swallowed whole with no ill effects but the kernels are very toxic. The seeds, leaves and young fruits are insecticidal. The leaf juice kills lice.