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Local Area Network :

Local Area Network amitweb007@gmail.com

Chapter Objectives:

Chapter Objectives Describe Ethernet standard Explain Ethernet Understand the concept of CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA protocols Explain different types of Ethernet Understand about repeaters, bridges and hubs used to extend computer networks amitweb007@gmail.com

IEEE Standards:

IEEE Standards An association that promotes engineering and electronic improvement IEEE 802 was started in February 1980 IEEE 802 committee defines frames, speed, distances and types of cabling to use for networking amitweb007@gmail.com

Protocols and Procedures:

Protocols and Procedures Protocols are set of rules which are used by the nodes on a network to communicate with each other Protocols are developed by committees, different companies developed products confirming to those protocols amitweb007@gmail.com

LAN Architecture - I:

LAN Architecture - I 802.3 Defines a standard for physical layer and data link layer of the Ethernet architecture that uses wired connection Ethernet is an architecture that mainly uses bus topology Defines various cabling used for different types of topologies amitweb007@gmail.com

LAN Architecture - II :

LAN Architecture - II 802.4 Defines a standard for Token Bus architecture Token bus is similar to token ring, but it uses coaxial cables amitweb007@gmail.com

LAN Architecture - III:

LAN Architecture - III 802.5 Defines a standard for Token ring architecture Uses the 10 Base T cabling standard Uses twisted pair cabling to connect devices instead of coaxial cable Passes data from one computer to another like in a token bus network amitweb007@gmail.com

IEEE 802.3 Logical relationship with OSI Reference Model:

IEEE 802.3 Logical relationship with OSI Reference Model IEEE 802.3 physical layer corresponds to the OSI physical layer OSI data link layer is divided into two IEEE 802 sublayers The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer amitweb007@gmail.com

Ethernet :

Ethernet Defined by IEEE as the 802.3 standard Most widely adapted LAN technology Supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps amitweb007@gmail.com

Introduction to Ethernet :

Introduction to Ethernet Nodes on an Ethernet network are either DTE (computer, printer) or DCE (switch, router) Three data rates currently defined for the operation over optical fiber and twisted-pair cables 10 Mbps – 10Base-T Ethernet 100 Mbps - Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps - Gigabit Ethernet amitweb007@gmail.com

Working of Ethernet :

Working of Ethernet Ethernet frame is used to transfer data over a network Each device in an Ethernet network is uniquely identified by a 48 bit (6 bytes) address called Ethernet address Ethernet addresses are represented as six pairs of hexadecimal digits separated by a colon. amitweb007@gmail.com

Elements of Ethernet System :

Elements of Ethernet System amitweb007@gmail.com

Ethernet Medium :

Ethernet Medium Transmits information over the network Computer D transmits information for Printer C Computer B and A also receives the information All devices inspect the destination address If the received frame is not meant for them, they will reject the frame amitweb007@gmail.com

Data Transmission :

Data Transmission When a computer wants to transmit, it listens to the cable (transmission medium) If two or more devices simultaneously transmit data on an idle cable, collision may occur amitweb007@gmail.com

Example of Collision :

Example of Collision Each device decides to broadcast an Ethernet frame to other device Devices listens to the Ethernet medium and detects that no carrier is present Devices transmit simultaneously, causing a collision amitweb007@gmail.com

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) :

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Permits one device to access to the network media at a time to avoid collision Networks using CSMA/CD technology such as Ethernet, network devices compete for the network media amitweb007@gmail.com

Working of CSMA/CD:

Working of CSMA/CD amitweb007@gmail.com

Carrier Sensing Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) :

Carrier Sensing Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) Set of rules that can avoid collisions, unlike CSMA/CD that handles network transmissions once collisions are detected In CSMA/CA, all devices are forced to wait for a random number of time slots and sense the medium again If the medium is sensed to be busy, the device stops the timer until it becomes free again. amitweb007@gmail.com

Types of Ethernet:

Types of Ethernet amitweb007@gmail.com

10Base-5 :

10Base-5 Thick coaxial cable is also referred to as thicknet 10Base5 refers to specifications of thick coaxial cable carrying Ethernet signals The 5 refers to the maximum segment length i.e. 500 meters RG-8 coaxial cable is used A 15-pin female DB connector called AUI connector is used to connect the device amitweb007@gmail.com


10Base-2 10Base-2 (thin coaxial cable) is also referred to as thinnet In 10Base-2, “2” refers to approximate maximum segment length of the cable which is 185 meters 10Base2 uses RG-58 coaxial cable with BNC connectors Cheaper and easier to install as compared to 10 Base 5 and 10 Base F amitweb007@gmail.com

10Base-T :

10Base-T Allows stations to be attached via twisted pair cable 10 refers to the transmission speed of 10 Mbps “T” refers to twisted pair cable In a 10BaseT network, each computer (node) is connected to a hub amitweb007@gmail.com

10 Base-F :

10 Base-F Uses fiber optic cable Possesses excellent noise immunity and is the method of choice when running between buildings or widely separated hubs 10 Base-F is expensive as the connectors and terminators used in 10 Base-F are costly amitweb007@gmail.com

Comparing Ethernet Types:

Comparing Ethernet Types Ethernet types 10Base5 10Base2 10BaseT 10BaseF Media Type Thick coaxial (RG8) Thin coaxial (RG58) UTP Fiber-optic Max.segment length (meters) 500 185 100 1000 Frequency(MHZ) 10 10 10 10 Max Nodes/Segment 100 30 1024 1024k amitweb007@gmail.com

Extending the network :

Extending the network A computer network can be extended using repeaters, hubs and bridges In computer networks, a bridge is an Internetworking device Repeater regenerates signal Repeaters remove the unwanted noise in an incoming signal A hub is a multi port repeater which provides a common point for the connection of network devices amitweb007@gmail.com


Summary Ethernet is a local-area network (LAN) structural design developed by DEC, Intel and Xerox Corporation. Ethernet is a very common and widely used method of networking computers in a LAN environment. All nodes on an Ethernet network are either Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communications Equipment (DCE). amitweb007@gmail.com


Summary Protocols are set of rules that the nodes on a network use to communicate with each other Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a network control protocol which uses a carrier sensing system Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a set of rules used to avoid collisions. 10 Base-2, 10 Base-5, 10 Base-T, and 10 Base-F are different types of cabling for Ethernet amitweb007@gmail.com


Summary A repeater is a device that is used on a link to regenerate the signal to extend the physical length of a network. Bridges are usually used to divide a busy network into separate segments and to connect multiple LANs. Hub is a Repeater with multiple ports and operates at the physical layer. amitweb007@gmail.com

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