Recent Advances in GRDDS

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ADVANCES IN GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS:

ADVANCES IN GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS GUIDED BY, DR. SHREERAJ SHAH HOD, PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY PREPARED BY, NIXIPT PATEL & AMIT PRAJAPATI M.PHARM, SEM-II PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY 1

Recent Innovations in GRDDS: Formulation & Evaluation of a novel Mucoadhesive drug delivery system to treat intestinal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients.:

Recent Innovations in GRDDS: Formulation & Evaluation of a novel Mucoadhesive drug delivery system to treat intestinal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Journal: Research in Pharmacy 1(4):10-16, 2011 Author: Suparna Dugal & Andrea Fernandes Abstract: The limited solubility & therefore bioavailibility, of the antimycotic drug, itraconazole , used for the treatment of intestinal Candidiasis in immunocompromised patients, has also been well documented. Therapeutic regimen in these patients may include daily administration of multiple doses of various drugs. Hence, improving the residence time of therapeutic agents, would ensure a high continuous concentration in the body & help decrease the dosing frequency. In our current study, we have investigated a novel method of drug delivery, developed by utilizing the concept of muco-adhesiveness, for the sustained release of the drug, itraconazole. Mucoadhesive beads were prepared by using two natural polymers, isabghula husk & alginate. The minimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole for candida was found to b 1.5 mg/ml. Accordingly, beads were prepared by ionic gelation method using calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. Marked improvement in solubility of the drug was noted after entrapment. 2 GRDDS, LJIP.

Development and Evaluation of Floating MatrixTablets of Riboflavin :

Development and Evaluation of Floating MatrixTablets of Riboflavin Journal: International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1439-1445, April-June 2010 Authors: Rajashree Masareddy, Shiva Kumar Yellanki, Bhushan R. Patil, F. V. Manvi Abstract: In the present study floating matrix drug delivery systems of model drug Riboflavin was developed and investigated in view of improving its oral bioavailability. The single and bilayer tablets were prepared by direct compression technique using polymers hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (METHOCEL K4M), Carbopol 971P and other standard excipients. Calcium carbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent. The effect of polymers, diluents(lactose & microcrystalline cellulose) on drug release profile, floating properties were investigated. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, friability, swelling index, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release. Polymer with lower viscosity (HPMC K4M) was found to be beneficial than higher viscosity polymer (Carbopol 971P) in improving the release properties of gastric floating drug delivery system. Incorporation of Carbopol in formulation helped in maintaining buoyancy of system. The mechanism of drug release was found to follow Higuchi matrix order release. 3 GRDDS, LJIP.

A floating multiparticulate system for ofloxacin based on a multilayer structure: In vitro and in vivo evaluation:

A floating multiparticulate system for ofloxacin based on a multilayer structure: In vitro and in vivo evaluation Journal: International Journal Of Pharmaceutics Authors: Chungang Zhang, Ming Xu, Xiaoguang Tao, Jingya Tang, Zitong Liu, Yu Zhang, Xia Lin, Haibing He, Xing Tang Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop a novel gastroretentive multiparticulate system with floating ability.This system was designed to provide drug loaded pellets coated with 3 successive coatings- the retarding film(EC), the effervescent layer(sodium bicarbonate) & the gas entrapped polymer membrane(Eudragit RL 30D) . The floating pellets were evaluated for SEM, floating characteristic parameters, in-vitro release & bioavailibility. Due to the swelling property, high flexibility & high permeability , Eudragit RL 30D was used a gas entrapped polymeric membrane. The obtained pellets exhibit excellent floating ability & release characteristics . Analysis of the release mechanism showed a zero-order release for the first 8hr because of the osmotic pressure of the saturated solution inside of the membrane, which was in accordance with that predicted. Abdominal X-ray images showed that the gastroretention period of the floating barium sulfate-labelled pellets was no less than 6hr. The relative bioavailibility of floating pellets compared with reference tablets was 113.06 ± 23.83%. All these results showed that the floating pellets are a feasible approach for GRDDS. 4 GRDDS, LJIP.

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Potential of Novel Drug Delivery Systems for HERBAL DRUGS.:

Potential of Novel Drug Delivery Systems for HERBAL DRUGS. Journal: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education & Research Authors: Ashwani Goyal, Sandeep Kumar, Manju Nagpal, Inderbir Singh & Sandeep Arora. Abstract: Recently the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their miraculous therapeutic effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, delivery of herbal drugs also require modifications with the purpose to achieve sustained release, to increase patient compliance, etc. Previously herbal drugs could not attract scientists towards the development of novel drug delivery systems due to processing, standardising, extracting & identification difficulties. But nowadays, with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems opens the door towards development of herbal drug delivery systems. Novel drug delivery technologies have gained the importance to achieve modified delivery of herbal drugs thereby increasing the therapeutic value as well as reduced toxicity. For last one decade, many novel carriers such as liposomes, nanoparticles, phytosomes & implants have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs eg. curcumin, quercetin, silybin, ginkgo,etc

Herbal Drugs/Ingredients can be formulated in GRDDS:

Herbal Drugs/Ingredients can be formulated in GRDDS Black Myrobalan ( Terminalia Chebulia Retz) Ginger Roots ( Zingiber Officinale Rosc) Turmeric ( Curcuma Longa L) Thyme Liquorice Berberine Goshuyn ( Evodia Rutaecarpa) Other Chinese Herbs: Coptis Chinensis, Rheum Palmitum, Panax Notogenseng, Magnolia Officinalis 7 GRDDS, LJIP.

Formulation & Evaluation of Floating tablets of Liquorice extracts:

Formulation & Evaluation of Floating tablets of Liquorice extracts Journal: Pharmacognosy Research( year:2010, vol: 2, Issue: 5, Page no: 304-308 Authors: HN Aswatha Ram, Prachiti Lachake, Ujjwal Kaushik, CS Shreedhara Abstract: Floating tablets prolong the gastric retention time of drugs, improve bioavailibility & facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach. With this objective, floating tablets containing aqueous extract of liquorice as drug was prepared for the treatment of H.pylori & gastric ulcers. Method: The aqueous extract of liquorice was standardized by HPTLC. Tablets containing HPMC K 100 M( hydrophilic polymer), liquorice extract, sodium bicarbonate( gas generating agent), talc & Mg. stearate were prepared using Direct Compression Method. The formulations were evaluated for physical parameters like diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, drug content, buoyancy time, dissolution & drug release mechanism. The formulations were optimized on the basis of buoyancy time & in vitro drug release. 8 GRDDS, LJIP.

Formulation Development studies on Gastro-retentive Floating Drug Delivery System of FORSKOLIN- A Natural Root extract of COLEUS FORSKOHLII:

Formulation Development studies on Gastro-retentive Floating Drug Delivery System of FORSKOLIN- A Natural Root extract of COLEUS FORSKOHLII Journal: Asian Journal Of Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research( Vol-5, Issue 1, 2012) Authors: Chakraborty M, Gupta Bijan Kumar, Debnath R, Pal R.N., Kumar Rajib Abstract: In the present study, Forskolin, a root extract of Coleus Forskohlii , was developed into a gastro-retentive floating drug delivery system, using different grades of HPMC. The drug is used as an anti-obesity agent reducing fat. Forskolin increases cAMP accumulation & therefore stimulate lipolysis . Enhanced lipolysis increases fat degradation & fat usage as a fuel in the body. This may promote fat n weight loss . It is thought that supplementing with Forskolin may enhance fat loss without loss of muscle mass. Presently, the drug is available in conventional capsule dosage form with effect on systolic blood pressure. In floating drug delivery, the release rate of drug was controlled minimizing dose related side effects. 9 GRDDS, LJIP.

Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Curcumin :

Development and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Curcumin Journal: Tropical Journal Of Pharmaceutical Research, October 2012; 11(5): 713-719 Authors: Kapil Kumar & AK Rai Abstract: Floating microsphere were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method, using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), Eudragit S 100 polymer in varying ratios. Ethanol/dichloromethane blend was used as solvent in a ratio of 1:1. The floating microspheres were evaluated for flow properties, particle size, incorporation efficiency, as well as in-vitro floatability and drug release. The shape and surface morphology of the microspheres were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. 10 GRDDS, LJIP.

Gastroretentive Floating Drug Delivery System with Potential Herbal Drugs for H.Pylori Eradication:

Gastroretentive Floating Drug Delivery System with Potential Herbal Drugs for H.Pylori Eradication Herbal & Integrative Drugs against H.Pylori infections: Black Myrobalan: The aqueous extract of black myrobalan ( Terminalia chebula Retz) has been shown to have uniform anti-bacterial activity against ten clinical strains of H. pylori. Even the ethanol extracts of this plant has also shown anti-bacterial activity, the anti-bacterial activity of aqueous extract was significantly higher. The aqueous extract preserved its anti-bacterial activity after auto-claving for 30min at 121 °C & was inhibitory at 125-150 mg/L. Berberine: Berberine is a plant alkaloid isolated from the roots & barks of several plants including golden seal, barberry, Coptis chinensis Franch & Yerba mansa. Berberine containing plants have been known to have anti-microbial activity against variety of organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans, helminths & chlamydia. More recently Berberine is demonstrated to be effective against H. pylori. 11 GRDDS, LJIP.

Formulation and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System for a Selective Anti-Diabetic Drugs. :

Formulation and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System for a Selective Anti-Diabetic Drugs . Journal : International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars Author : Shah Sweta V et al . Abstract : Sustained release gastroretentive dosage forms enable prolonged and continuous input of the drug to the upper parts of gastrointestinal tract and improve the bioavailability of medication that is characterized by narrow absorption window. Gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems (GFDDS) of metformin hydrochloride , an antidiabetic drug with an oral bioavailability of only 50% have been designed and evaluated. Xanthan gum and different grades of HPMC were used as strong gelling agent and sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent to reduce floating lag time. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Drug- excipients compatibility was studied by FTIR and DSC . The release of drug from the formulation followed zero order kinetics and was governed by non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. ® 12 GRDDS, LJIP.

Development of cloxacillin loaded multiple-unit Alginate- based floating system by emulsion–gelation method:

Development of cloxacillin loaded multiple-unit Alginate- based floating system by emulsion– gelation method Journal : - International Journal of Biological Macromolecule. Author :- Jadupati Malakar et al. Abstract :- This work investigates the development, optimization and in vitro evaluation of liquid paraffin-entrapped multiple-unit alginate-based floating system containing cloxacillin by emulsion– gelation method for gastro retentive delivery. The effect of process variables like drug to polymer ratio by weight, and liquid paraffin to water ratio by volume on various physicochemical properties in case of liquid paraffinentrapped calcium alginate beads containing cloxacillin applicable to drug entrapment efficiency, density and drug release was optimized using 32 factorial design and analyzed using response surface methodology. The optimized beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.63 ± 0.78%, density of 0.90 ± 0.05 g/cm3, and drug release of 56.72 ± 0.85% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) after 8 h with floating lag time of 8.45 min and floated well over 12 h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR for surface morphology and excipients –drug interaction analysis, respectively. All these beads showed prolonged sustained release of cloxacillin over 8 h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). ® 13 GRDDS, LJIP.

Floating capsules containing alginate-based beads of salbutamol sulfate: In vitro–in vivo evaluations:

Floating capsules containing alginate-based beads of salbutamol sulfate: In vitro–in vivo evaluations Journal :- International Journal of Biological Macromolecule. Author : Prabir kumar Datta et al Abstract : The present study deals with the development and evaluations of stomach-specific floating capsules containing salbutamol sulfate-loaded oil-entrapped alginate-based beads. Salbutamol sulfate-loaded oil-entrapped beads were prepared and capsulated within hard gelatin capsules (size 1). The effects of HPMCK4M and potato starch weight masses on drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE) of beads and cumulativedrug release at 10 h from capsules was analyzed by factorial design. The optimization resultsindicate increasing of DEE in the oil-entrapped beads and decreasing R10 hfrom capsules with increment of HPMC K4M and potato starch weight masses. The optimized formulation showed DEE of 70.02 ± 3.16%and R10 h of 56.96 ± 2.92%. These capsules showed floatation over 6 h and sustained drug release over10 h in gastric pH (1.2). In vivo X-ray imaging study of optimized floating capsules in rabbits showedstomach -specific gastroretention over a prolonged period. ® 14 GRDDS, LJIP.

Preparation of Sustain Release Antipsychotic Tablet by Bilayer GRDDS concept:

Preparation of Sustain Release Antipsychotic Tablet by Bilayer GRDDS concept J ourn al : International Journal of Pharmacy and Science. Aut hor : Sharma Shailesh et al Abst ract : For decades an acute or chronic illness is being clinically treated through delivery of drugs to the patients in form of some pharmaceutical dosage forms in that one of that is bilayer GRDDS tablets in that system those antipsychotic drugs like Amisulpride half-life 11, are retarded in Gastric fluid with the help of different polymers like ( Kollidone SR, Cross Povidone ) and excipients (Sodium-bi- Carbonat ) which provide the swelling action to the dosage form. Because of the swelling action the tablet dissolution will be late so that absorption of the drug will be decreases and duration of action of the drug is increases and sustained. The tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. Microcrystalline Cellulose, Hydroxy Propyl methylcellulose (HPMC), Talc, Magnesium Stearate , Iso Propyl alcohol, Xanthan Gum, Kollidone , Cross Povidone , Aerosil , Avesil 101, 112, 102, Sodium Bi-carbonate, Poly vinyl pyrollidone K-30, Carbopol with varying excipients Six bilayer for mulations AM1-AM6 were prepared by compressing both Instant Release and Sustained Release granules. ® 15 GRDDS, LJIP.

Physical characterizations and sustained release profiling of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with improved floating and swelling capabilities:

Physical characterizations and sustained release profiling of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with improved floating and swelling capabilities Journal: International Journal of Pharamceutics . Author: Ying-Chen Chena et al Abstract: GRDDS tablets formulated with hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), chitosan (CS) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) for evaluating floating capacity and swelling characteristics. CS was used because it was swellable in acidic media and biocompatible. Losartan was incorporated into the optimized formulations for sustained release profiling. Results demonstrated that for those formulations at HEC:CS ratio of 5:5 containing CS, both the floating lag time and floating duration were optimal and reached the preferred swelling effect and sustain for 24 h. Adding SB improved the floating capabilities for all ratios of HEC:CS, but reduced the swelling ability for those formulations containing a higher portion of low viscosity grade CS. Sustained release profiles for losartan in those formulations were achievable, using all viscosity grades of CS at all examined HEC:CS ratios; however, it is more adjustable at different HEC:CS ratios when using a lower viscosity grade of CS. Optimized GRDDS formulations for losartan composed of an equivalent ratio of HEC to CS with 20 mg SB resulted in the tablets floating for more than 16 h and an adjustable sustained release profile. ® 16 GRDDS, LJIP.

Review of PATENTS related to GRDDS A gastroretentive dosage system and process of preparation thereof:

Review of PATENTS related to GRDDS A gastroretentive dosage system and process of preparation thereof Publication number : WO2013054285 A1 Publication type : Application Application number : PCT/IB2012/055514 Publication date : Apr 18, 2013 Filing date : Oct 11, 2012 Inventors : Varinder Kumar, Shavej AHMAD, Romi Barat Singh Applicant : Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited ABSTRACT : The present invention relates to novel gastroretentive dosage systems, in particular, a floating capsule which releases the drug without any lag time and which remains buoyant for a sufficient period of time in the stomach. Further, the invention relates to the process of preparation thereof. 17 GRDDS, LJIP.

Patent: Novel Gastroretentive Dosage Forms Of Poorly Soluble Drugs:

Patent: Novel Gastroretentive Dosage Forms Of Poorly Soluble Drugs Filling Date: Oct 19, 2010 Publication Date: April 28, 2011 Application Number: IB2010/002867 Applicants/ Inventors: NAVON, Nadav, 7 Sochovolsky St. 76656 Rehovot (IL) INTEC PHARMA LTD. , 12 Harltom Street P.O. BOX 45219 91450 Jerusalam (IL) Abstract Disclosed is a multi-layered gastroretentive dosage form for the controlled release of a poorly soluble drug in the stomach & GIT of a patient, folded into a capsule whic disintegrates rapidly & the said multi-layered dosage form unfolds rapidly upon contact with the gastric juice. The mechanism of the gastric retention are not dependent on & do not influence the materials & methods used in controlling the release of the said poorly soluble drugs. 18 GRDDS, LJIP.

Patents: Polymeric matrix of polymer-lipid nanoparticles as a pharmaceutical dosage form:

Patents: Polymeric matrix of polymer-lipid nanoparticles as a pharmaceutical dosage form Publication number : US20140005269 A1 Publication D ate : Jan 2, 2014 Filing D ate : Nov 28, 2011 Priority D ate : Nov 26, 2010 Inventors : Ndidi Ngwuluka , Viness Pillay , Yahya Essop Choonara , Lisa Claire Du Toit ABSTRACT A pharmaceutical dosage form for the release of at least one pharmaceutically active ingredient is claimed. The pharmaceutical dosage form includes a polymer matrix, polymer-lipid nanoparticles incorporated within the matrix and the pharmaceutically active ingredient(s). The polymer matrix is formed from at least two crosslinked cationic and anionic polymers, such as Eudragit ® E100 and sodium carboxymethlycellulose . The polymer-lipid nanoparticles are formed from at least one polymer, such as Eudragit ® E100 and/or chitosan , and at least one phospholipid , such as lecithin. The polymer(s) and phospholipid are crosslinking with a chelating agent, such as sodium tripolyphosphate . The active ingredient or ingredients can be any pharmaceutically active compound(s), and in particular poorly absorbed compounds such as levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease . 19 GRDDS, LJIP.

Patent: Gastroretentive, Extended Release Composition Of Therapeutic Agent:

Patent: Gastroretentive, Extended Release Composition Of Therapeutic Agent Publication Date: 01/03/2013 Application Number: 13/608994 Filling Date: 09/10/2012 Inventors: Muthuswamy, Ramesh Kulkarni( Pune, IN), Mohan Gopalkrishna( Pune, IN) Abstract A gastroretentive, extended release composition which floats & swells at acidic pH prevalent in the stomach. The composition includes a pH dependent graft copolymer, a gellable polymer, a therpeutic agent, a gas generating system & pharmaceutically acceptable ingredients. The disclosed composition is useful to deliver the therapeutic agent within the stomach for an extended period of time. 20 GRDDS, LJIP.

Patent:Gastro retentive drug delivery system of calcium supplements:

Patent:Gastro retentive drug delivery system of calcium supplements Publication number : WO2013114390 A1 Publication type : Application Publication date : Aug 8, 2013 Filing date : Dec 26, 2012 Priority date : Jan 2, 2012 Inventors : Chandanmal Pukhraj Bothra, Shesha Iyengar SHRINIVASAN, Kandarapu Raghupathi Applicant : Medreich Limited ABSTRACT Provided are a gastro retentive dosage form of calcium and salts thereof and preparing method thereof. Said dosage form comprises absorption enhancing agents, diluents, binders, disintegrants, floating agents, polymers, lubricants, anti adherents, preservatives and combinations thereof. 21 GRDDS, LJIP.

PATENTS: Tolperisone Controlled Release Tablet. :

PATENTS: Tolperisone Controlled Release Tablet . Publication number : US2010/02494 A1. Publication type : Patent Publication date : Sep 30, 2010. Filing date : feb 19,2010 Inventors : Stefan Welzig, Jan Rothenburger, Beate Kalz ,Jozsef Gungl,Klaus Gerdes. Abstract : A GRDDS containing Tolperisone and having a 2- methyl-1-(4-methylphenyl)-propenone fraction of less than 1.5 ppm for the extended release of the active substance tolperisone while avoiding the formation of 4-MMPPO in gastrointestinal tract. ® 22 GRDDS, LJIP.

Patents: Gastro-retentive drug delivery system for controlled drug release in the stomach and into the upper intestines:

Patents: Gastro-retentive drug delivery system for controlled drug release in the stomach and into the upper intestines Publication number : US20130315991 A1 Publication date : Nov 28, 2013 Filing date : Nov 14, 2012 Priority date : Nov 14, 2011 Inventors : David Hunkeler, Klaus Eichler, Julien Arnold ABSTRACT A gastro-retentive drug delivery system for controlled release of drugs in the stomach or upper gastro-intestinal track provides one or more polymers that hydrate and swell to immobilize the drug in situ in a protective, degradable envelope or cocoon . In one embodiment, oppositely charged polyelectroytes are admixed with the drug and filled in a capsule having a dissolution profile in stomach acid at body temperature. The dissolution profile of the capsule promotes formation of a po l yelectrolyte gel complex. The gel complex increases retention time of the drug and reduces dosing requirements, increases absorption, reduces dose-dependent side effects, and provides reproducible, time-controlled drug residence in the GI tract. 23 GRDDS, LJIP.

PATENT:GAS EMPOWERED EXPANDABLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS. :

PATENT: GAS EMPOWERED EXPANDABLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS . Publication number : WO 2009/125432 A2 Publication date : Oct 15, 2009. Inventors : Jungiger Hans; Farid; Pandharinath; Shirishkumar; Lupin Ltd. IN. Abstract : An expandable drug delivery system comprising of one or more actives, force generating components, optionally containing one or more absorption modifiers and optionally containing one or more bioadhesive polymers. The active ingredient is entrapped into the nano/microsized particles of a mucoadhesive polymer matrix. The single unit dosage form is optionally coated with a degradable separating and/or enteric coating layer. An expandable drug delivery system for oral delivery consisting of a protein or peptide drug(s), force-generating components, with/with out absorption modifiers, wherein the composition is formulated to increase the residence time drug containing sub-units of the delivery system in the GIT, optionally coated with enteric polymers. An expandable drug delivery system consisting of a peptide drug, expandable polymer matrix, expanding force-generating component, which delivers drug to the absorbing membrane after a lag time followed by a burst release or sustained release. ® 24

PATENT : GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM. :

PATENT : GASTRO-RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM. Publication number : WO 2014/014348 Al Publication date : 23 January 2014 Filing date : 15 July 2013 Inventors : Hendrik Jan Corn; CHANGOER; Marinella Regina. Abstract : The invention relates to floating drug delivery systems(FDDS) that provide solutions to the particular problems often encountered with floating drug delivery systems described in the art. On such generally recognized problem is the vulnerability of the systems, especially damage to the gas-filled compartment making it accessible to water so as to impair its buoyancy, ultimately o resulting in insufficient gastric residence time. The invention, in an aspect, provides a self-repairing FDDS that maintains its floating capacity after damaging. The floating drug delivery systems of the invention, furthermore,allow for incorporation of high loads of o active ingredients. The floating drug delivery systems can be designed in such a way that release of active ingredient from the system occurs entirely independent from the pH of the fluid surrounding the system. Furthermore, the procedure of manufacturing the float ing drug delivery system of the invention is simple and straightforward, and therefore economically attractive. 25 GRDDS, LJIP.

Marketed Products Of GRDDS :

Marketed Products Of GRDDS Brand Name Drug (dose) Company, Country Remarks Madopar Levodopa(100mg), Beserazide(25mg) Roche Products, USA Floating, CR Capsule Valrelease Diazepam (15mg) Hoffman- LaRoche Floating Capsule Liquid Gaviscon Al hydroxide (95mg), Mg carbonate (358mg) Glaxo Smith Kline, India Effervescent floating liquid alginate preparation Topalkan Al-Mg Antacid Pierre Fabre Drug, France Floating liquid alginate preparation Conviron Ferrous sulphate Ranbaxy, India Colloidal gel forming FDDS Cifran OD Ciprofloxacin (1gm) Ranbaxy, India Gas generating floating form 26 GRDDS, LJIP.

References :-:

References :- Sweta S.; Formulation and Evaluation of Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System for a Selective Anti Diabetic Drugs; International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars; ISSN No: 2277-7873; V-1, I-2, 2012; 178-189. Jadupati M. et al; Development of cloxacillin loaded multiple-unit Alginate- based floating system by emulsion–gelation method; International Journal of Biological Macromolecule; 50 (2012) 138– 147. Prabir kumar D. et al; Floating capsules containing alginate-based beads of salbutamol sulfate: In vitro–in vivo evaluations ; International Journal of Biological Macromolecule; 64 (2014) 181– 189. Shailesh S. et al ; Preparation of Sustain Release Antipsychotic Tablet by Bilayer GRDDS concept; International Journal of Pharmacy and Science; 2012,2(4),48-60. Ying-Chen Chena et al ;Physical characterizations and sustained release profiling of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with improved floating and swelling capabilities; International Journal of Pharmaceutics; 441 (2013) 162– 169. GRDDS, LJIP. 27

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