Slide 1: Amit M Gupta
Agnihotri College of Pharmacy, Wardha Emulsion Emulsion : Emulsion Definition
Theory of emulsification
Stability of emulsion
Preservation of emulsion
Incorporation of drugs into emulsion
Microemulsion Emulsion : Emulsion A’. Two immisicble liquids, not emulsified; B’. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C’. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D’. The (purple) surfactant positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a thermodynamically unstable system consisting of at least two immiscible liquid phases, one of which is dispersed as globules in the other liquid phase, stabilized by the presence of an emulsifying agent. Pharmaceutical application of emulsions : Pharmaceutical application of emulsions O/W emulsion is convenient for oral dosing
To cover unpleasant taste
To increase oral absorption
I.V. O/W, if oral o/w not possible (RES uptake)
External use (topical cream) A broad-spectrum antifungal agent administered orally to treat a variety of fungal infections. Emulsion types : Emulsion types Types
Determination of o/w or w/o
Water soluble dye (e.g., methylene blue)
Dilution of emulsions
Conduction of current Theory of emulsification : Theory of emulsification Change from A to B will significantly increase of the surface area of phase.
e.g., if 1 cm3 of mineral oil is dispersed into globules having diameter of 0.01 mm in 1 cm3 of water, how much will be the surface area increased.
The surface area will become 600 m2 (greater than a basketball court); the surface free energy will increase by 8 calories. Therefore, emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, and the droplets have the tendency to coalesce.
Emulsifying agents are needed to decrease the surface tension and to stabilize the droplets. Classification of emulsifying agents : Classification of emulsifying agents Surface active agents (monomolecular film)
Hydrophilic colloids (multimolecular film)
Finely divided solid particles (Particulate film) Monomolecular adsorption : Monomolecular adsorption Rule of Bancroft: The type of the emulsion is a function of the relative solubility of the surfactant, the phase in which it is more soluble being the continuous phase. Multimolecular adsorption and film formation : Multimolecular adsorption and film formation 1. Hydrated lyophilic colloids (hydrocolloids)
providing a protective sheath around the droplets
imparting a charge to the dispersed droplets (so that they repel each other)
swelling to increase the viscosity of the system (so that droplets are less likely to merge)
2. Classification of hydrocolloids
vegetable derivatives, e.g., acacia, tragacanth, agar, pectin, lecithin
animal derivatives, e.g., gelatin, lanolin, cholesterol
Semi-synthetic agents, e.g., methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose
Synthetic agents, e.g., carbomers (PEG and acrylic acid) Solid particle adsorption : Solid particle adsorption Description: Finely divided solid particles that are wetted to some degree by both oil and water can act as emulsifying agents. This results from their being concentrated at the interface, where they produce a particulate film around the dispersed droplets to prevent coalescence.
Example of agents: bentonite (Al2O3.4SiO2.H2O), veegum (Magnesium Aluminum Silicate), hectorite, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide and magnesium trisilicate
Auxiliary Emulsifying Agents
A variety of fatty acids (e.g., stearic acid), fatty alcohols (e.g., stearyl or cetyl alcohol), and fatty esters (e.g., glyceryl monostearate) serve to stabilize emulsions through their ability to thicken the emulsion. Because these agents have only weak emulsifying properties, they are always use in combination with other emulsifiers. Auxiliary emulsifying agents : Auxiliary emulsifying agents Auxiliary (secondary) emulsifying agents include those compounds that are normally incapable themselves of forming stable emulsion. Their main values lies in their ability to function as thickening agents and thereby help stabilize the emulsion. Physical stability of emulsion : Physical stability of emulsion Creaming
Creaming is the upward movement of dispersed droplets of emulsion relative to the continuous phase (due to the density difference between two phases)
Stoke’s law: dx/dt = d2 (?i-?e)g/18h
dx/dt = rate of setting
D = diameter of particles
? = density of particles and medium
g = gravitational constant
h = viscosity of medium Physical stability of emulsion : Physical stability of emulsion Breaking, coalescence, aggregation
Breaking is the destroying of the film surrounding the particles.
Coalescence is the process by which emulsified particles merge with each to form large particles.
Aggregation: dispersed particles come together but do not fuse.
The major fact preventing coalescence is the mechanical strength of the interfacial film. Physical stability of emulsion : Physical stability of emulsion Phase inversion
An emulsion is said to invert when it changes from an o/w to w/o or vice versa.
Addition of electrolyte
Addition of CaCl2 into o/w emulsion formed by sodium stearate can be inverted to w/o.
Changing the phase:volume ratio Preservation of emulsions : Preservation of emulsions Growth of microorganisms in emulsions
Preservatives should be in aqueous phase.
Preservatives should be in unionized state to penetrate the bacteria
Preservatives must not bind to other components of the emulsion Methods of emulsion preparation : Methods of emulsion preparation Continental or dry gum method
Wet gum method
Bottle or Forbes bottle method
In situ soap method
Calcium soaps: w/o emulsions contain oils such as oleic acid, in combination with lime water (calcium hydroxide solution, USP). Prepared by mixing equal volumes of oil and lime water. Nascent soap : Nascent soap Oil phase: olive oil/oleic acid; olive oil may be replaced by other oils, but oleic acid must be added
Lime water: Ca(OH)2 should be freshly prepared.
Equal volume of oil and lime water
The emulsion formed is w/o or o/w?
Method of preparation:
Mortar method: when the formulation contains solid insoluble such as zinc oxide and calamine. Dry gum method : Dry gum method The continental method is used to prepare the initial or primary emulsion from oil, water, and a hydrocolloid or "gum" type emulsifier (usually acacia). The primary emulsion, or emulsion nucleus, is formed from 4 parts oil, 2 parts water, and 1 part emulsifier. The 4 parts oil and 1 part emulsifier represent their total amounts for the final emulsion.
In a mortar, the 1 part gum (e.g., acacia) is levigated with the 4 parts oil until the powder is thoroughly wetted; then the 2 parts water are added all at once, and the mixture is vigorously and continually triturated until the primary emulsion formed is creamy white.
Additional water or aqueous solutions may be incorporated after the primary emulsion is formed. Solid substances (e.g., active ingredients, preservatives, color, flavors) are generally dissolved and added as a solution to the primary emulsion. Oil soluble substance, in small amounts, may be incorporated directly into the primary emulsion. Any substance which might reduce the physical stability of the emulsion, such as alcohol (which may precipitate the gum) should be added as near to the end of the process as possible to avoid breaking the emulsion. When all agents have been incorporated, the emulsion should be transferred to a calibrated vessel, brought to final volume with water, then homogenized or blended to ensure uniform distribution of ingredients. Preparing emulsion by dry gum method : Preparing emulsion by dry gum method Cod liver oil 50 mL
Acacia 12.5 g
Syrup 10 mL
Flavor oil 0.4 mL
Purified water, qs ad 100 mL Accurately weigh or measure each ingredient
Place cod liver oil in dry mortar
Add acacia and give it a very quick mix
Add 25 mL of water and immediately triturate to form the thick, white, homogenous primary emulsion
Add the flavor and mix
Add syrup and mix
Add sufficient water to total 100 mL Wet gum method : Wet gum method In this method, the proportions of oil, water, and emulsifier are the same (4:2:1), but the order and techniques of mixing are different. The 1 part gum is triturated with 2 parts water to form a mucilage; then the 4 parts oil is added slowly, in portions, while triturating. After all the oil is added, the mixture is triturated for several minutes to form the primary emulsion. Then other ingredients may be added as in the continental method. Generally speaking, the English method is more difficult to perform successfully, especially with more viscous oils, but may result in a more stable emulsion. Bottle method : Bottle method This method may be used to prepare emulsions of volatile oils, or oleaginous substances of very low viscosities. This method is a variation of the dry gum method. One part powdered acacia (or other gum) is placed in a dry bottle and four parts oil are added. The bottle is capped and thoroughly shaken. To this, the required volume of water is added all at once, and the mixture is shaken thoroughly until the primary emulsion forms. It is important to minimize the initial amount of time the gum and oil are mixed. The gum will tend to imbibe the oil, and will become more waterproof. Auxiliary method : Auxiliary method An emulsion prepared by other methods can also usually be improved by passing it through a hand homogenizer, which forces the emulsion through a very small orifice, reducing the dispersed droplet size to about 5 microns or less. Incorporation of medicinal agents : Incorporation of medicinal agents Addition of drug during emulsion formation
Addition of drugs to a preformed emulsion
1. Addition of oleaginous materials into a w/o emulsion
2. Addition of oleaginous materials to an o/w emulsion
3. Addition of water soluble materials to a w/o emulsion
4. Addition of water soluble materials to an o/w emulsion Microemulsion : Microemulsion Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable, optically transparent, isotropic mixtures of a biophasic oil-water system stabilized with surfactants. Pharmaceutical applications of microemulsions : Pharmaceutical applications of microemulsions Increase bioavailability of drugs poorly soluble in water
Topical drug delivery systems Preparation of nanoparticles from microemulsion precursors : Preparation of nanoparticles from microemulsion precursors Slide 30: THANK YOU,,,,,,,