calotropis procera

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BY AMIT K. KHAIRNAR. INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL EDUCATION, BORADI-425 428 (M.S) INDIA Calotropis procera(Ait.)R.Br.-An Ethanopharmacological Update

Points to be covered in Presentation: : 

Points to be covered in Presentation: Introduction Botanical Classification Morphology Distribution and Occurrences Traditional Medicinal Uses Phytochemistry Pharmacological Activities Contraindication References

Introduction : 

Introduction The traditional way of using herbal drugs has contributed a lot to human health especially in 21th century. Natural medicine improves the inner immune system of the human body, hence due to no side effect the herbal drug acts more effectively than the modern medicine. Calotropis procera (Ait.) is plant which is a soft-wooded, evergreen, perennial shrub. It is recommended as a host plant for butterflies. In the past, the silky hairs were used to stuff pillows. Calotropis procera was tested as a host for sandalwood, Santalum album L., a partial root parasite. It resulted in greater growth of sandalwood than all other species tested. Extracts, chopped leaves, and latex have shown great promise as nematicides, in vitro and in vivo. If the leaves are chopped and mixed with other feed, consumption greatly increases with no ill effects.

Introduction : 

Introduction It is also known as sodom apple, calotrope, French cotton, small crown flower (English), algodón de seda, bomba (Spanish), cotton-france, arbre de soie, and bois canon (French) ,Vellerukku Calotropis procera

Botanical Classification : 

Botanical Classification Classification of Calotropis procera (Ait.) Kingdom : Plantae – Plants Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons Subclass : Asteridae Order : Gentianales Family : Asclepiadaceae – Milkweed family Genus : Calotropis R. Br. – calotropis Species : Calotropis procera

Morphology : 

Morphology It has one or a few stems, few branches, and relatively few leaves, mostly concentrated near the growing tip. The bark is corky, furrowed, and light gray. A copious white sap flows whenever stems or leaves are cut. Giant milkweed roots were found to have few branches and reach depths of 1.7 to 3.0 m in Indian sandy desert soils. Leaves are oblongobovate to nearly orbicular, short-pointed to blunt at the apex and have very short petioles below a nearly clasping, heart-shaped base. The leaf blades are light to dark green with nearly white veins. They are 7 to 18 cm long and 5 to 13 cm broad, slightly leathery, and have a fine coat of soft hairs that rub off. The flower clusters are umbelliform cymes that grow at or near the ends of twigs. The flowers are shallowly campanulate with five sepals that are 4 to 5 mm long, fleshy and variable in color from white to pink, often spotted or tinged with purple. The fruits are inflated, obliquely ovoid follicles that split and invert when mature to release flat, brown seeds with a tuft of white hairs at one end.

Morphology : 

Morphology Flower Leaves

Distribution and Occurrences : 

Distribution and Occurrences Calotropis procera is native to West Africa as far south as Angola, North and East Africa, Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Asia, and Indochina to Malaysia. The species is now naturalized in Australia, many Pacific islands, Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean islands. Giant milkweed favors open habitat with little competition. This condition is most completely met in overgrazed pastures and rangeland. Other common habitats are beachfront dunes, roadsides, and isturbed urban lots. The species grows in dry habitat (150 to 1000 mm precipitation) and sometimes in excessively drained soils in areas with as much as 2000 mm of annual precipitation. Calotropis procera may be found in areas up to 1,000 m in elevation in India.

Distribution and Occurrences : 

Distribution and Occurrences Calotropis procera

Traditional Medicinal Uses : 

Traditional Medicinal Uses The medicinal value of Calotropis procera have been describe in older pharmacopeia. It strongly recommended in leprosy, hepatic and splenic enlargements, dropsy and worms. The latex is applied to painful joints and swelling, fresh leaves are also use for the same purpose. Oil which the leaves have been boiled is applied to paralysed part. The milky juice is used in india as purgative, while flowers are considered as digestive, stomachic, tonic and useful in cough, asthma catarrh and loss of appetite. The root bark is said to promote secretion and to be useful in treating skin disease, enlargement of abdominal viscera, intestinal worms, ascites and anasarca. The leaves of aak are warmed and tied around any body organ in pain. It is practically useful in backache and in joint pains. Warm leaves also relieve from stomach ache if tied around. Inhalation of burnt leaf cures headache.

Traditional Medicinal Uses : 

Traditional Medicinal Uses Recent investigations have found that the alkaloids calotropin, calotaxein and uskerin are stimulant to the heart. Flowers are believed to have detergent properties so they are given in cholera. The fresh roots are used as a toothbrush and are considered by pathans to cure toothache.

Phytochemistry : 

Phytochemistry The Calotropis procera plants has many medicinal properties due to the presence of numerous secondary metabolites. These compounds includes various chemicals which are useful for various activities. After chemical screening of latex of Calotropis procera. The latex reveled that the plants contain cardenoids such as calotropin, calotoxin , uscharin, usechardin, glycoside calotropaginin, choline, o-pyrocatechuric acid, Benzoyllineolone, benzoylisoloneolane uzariganin and syriogenin. In the root of the Calotropis procera pentacyclic triterpenes, alkaloid, cardinolides phytosterols and triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from roots. The leaves, flower and roots contained high amount of ash and protein(10.9-11.7%) with varying quantities of alkaloids, leaves contained calotropin and calotropegenin.

Phytochemistry : 

Phytochemistry The root bark was found to contain long chain of fatty acid, sterol, resin. A polysaccharide was isolated from aq. Extract of leaves of this plant. It also indicate the presence of D-glucose, D-abrabinose, D-glucosamine and L-rhamnose.

Pharmacological Activities : 

Pharmacological Activities The Latex in Calotropis procera shows the Antidysenteric, Antirheumatic, Antinociceptive , Antipyretic , Anticancer , Anti-candidial and Anti-inflammatory Activity. The Leaves Calotropis procera shows Antioxidant and Antibacteria Activity. The Flowers in Calotropis procera shows Antisialagous Activity. The root in Calotropis proceraI shows Antimitoaic Activity.

Contraindications : 

Contraindications It is avoided during pregnancy. It can terminate the pregnancy even in the second trimester.

References : 

References Abbasi, A., T. Kunhahamed, K. Madhavan, P.C. Nipaney and R. Soni. 1992. J. Inst. Public Hlth.Engrs. India, 12: 12. Bhatia, V.K., G.S Srivastava, V.K. Garg, Y.K. Gupta and S.S. Rawat. 1984. Petrocrops for fuel. Biomass, 4: 151-154. Buchanan, R.A., I.M. Cull, F.H. Otey and C.R. Russell. 1978.Hydrocarbon and rubber producing crops: evaluation of U.S.plant species. Econ. Bot., 32: 131-135. Dhiman, A.K. 2003. Sacred plants and their medicinal uses. Daya Publishing house, Delhi. Downey, N.E. and J.F. Connolly. 1963. Methods for the enumeration of trichostrongylid third-stage larvae. Journal of Helminthology, 37: 255-260. Eriksson, J. 2001. Concentrations of 61 trace elements in sewage sludge, farmyard manure, mineral fertilizer, precipitation and in oil and corps, Report 5159, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.

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