Training and Development : Training and Development Definition : Definition Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience.
Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. Training, Development, and Education : Training, Development, and Education HRD programs are divided into three main categories: Training, Development, and Education.
Training is the acquisition of technology, which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. It improves human performance on the job the employee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace.
Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job Training, Development, and Education : Training, Development, and Education Education is training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upward, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks. Distinction between Training and Education : Distinction between Training and Education The following table draws a distinction between training and education more clearly.
Application Theoretical orientation
Job Experience Classroom learning
Specific Tasks General concepts
Narrow perspective Broad perspective Distinction between Training and Development : Distinction between Training and Development Learning Training Development
Who Non-managers Managers
What Technical Theoretical
Why Specific job General
When Short term Long term Purpose of Training : Purpose of Training To increase productivity and quality
To promote versatility and adaptability to new methods
To reduce the number of accidents
To reduce labour turnover
To increase job satisfaction displaying itself in lower labour turn- over and less absenteeism
To increase efficiency When does the need for training arise? : When does the need for training arise? The installation of new equipment or techniques
A change in working methods or products produced
A realization that performance is inadequate
Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees
A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality
An increase in the number of accidents
Promotion or transfer of individual employees.
Ensures availability of necessary skills and there could be a pool of talent from which to promote from. Advantages of Training : Advantages of Training 1. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation.
2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.
3. Improves the morale of the workforce.
4. Helps people identify with organizational goals.
5. Helps create a better corporate image.
6. Fasters authentically, openness and trust.
7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate.
8. Aids in organizational development.
9. Learns from the trainee.
10. Helps prepare guidelines for work. Disadvantages of training : Disadvantages of training 1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and testing, expensive to operate?
2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time;
3. Equips staff to leave for a better job
4. Bad habits passed on
5. Narrow experience Areas of Training : Areas of Training The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories:
Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes inside and outside the company.
The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating a machine and handling computer) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. Areas of Training Conti. : Areas of Training Conti. Social Skills
The employee is made to learn about himself and other, develop a right mental attitude, towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead.
This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-the-job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at clouding employee attitudes: When administered properly, a training programme. It will go a long way in obtaining employee loyalty, support and commitment to company activities. Issues in Employee Training : Issues in Employee Training Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs.
2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks.
3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.
4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity Issues in Employee Training Conti. : Issues in Employee Training Conti. 5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace.
6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace.
7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc.
8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. Training Process : Training Process Steps in the Training Process : Steps in the Training Process 1. Organizational objectives
2. Assessment of Training needs
3. Establishment of Training goals
4. Devising training programme
5. Implementation of training programme
6. Evaluation of results Organizational Objectives & Strategies : Organizational Objectives & Strategies The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. Needs Assessment : Needs Assessment Needs assessment diagnosis present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organizations that implement training programs without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. Needs assessment occurs at two levels- group and individual. Slide 19: FOR MORE USEFUL EDUCATIONAL PRESENTATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATIONS LIKE THESE