Recruitment : Recruitment Definition : Definition Recruitment is a 'linking function' - joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. It is a 'joining process' in that it tries to bring together job seekers and employer with a view to encourage the former to apply for a job with the latter.
The basic purpose of recruiting is to develop a group of potentially qualified people. To this end, the organization must communicate the position in such a way that job seekers respond. To be cost effective, the recruitment process should attract qualified applicants and provide enough information for unqualified persons to self-select themselves out.
Recruitment involves searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality so that the organisation can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs. Aims of Recruitment : Aims of Recruitment The aims of recruitment are:
? to obtain a pool of suitable candidates for vacant posts
? to use and be seen to use a fair process
? to ensure that all recruitment activities contribute to company goals and a desirable company image
? to conduct recruitment activities in an efficient and cost-effective manner Environment Affecting Recruitment : Environment Affecting Recruitment The Economic Environment
Economic conditions quietly influence the recruitment process in all organizations. The sudden boom in the financial services sector in India, especially from 1991 onwards, has contributed to the growing demand for MBA/CA/CFA/CWA students. The demand for engineers, especially in the manufacturing sector, has not kept pace and most engineers had to make a beeline for finance/marketing degrees or diploma to encash the job opportunities.
The Social Environment
Major social changes in the past two decades have caused organizations to place increased emphasis on recruitment. Modem employees look for a satisfying career in place of 'just a job'. If the opportunities for career growth are missing in an organization, they do not hesitate to leave and go in search of greener pastures outside. To ward off such threats, companies nowadays emphasize opportunities for training and development and progression through a series of jobs within the same organization. They also try to present a more realistic picture of the job and the encouraging career openings to prospective employees through innovative recruitment campaigns. If the organization is not aware of and is insensitive to prevailing social values and norms, the recruitment efforts could go off the track. Environment Affecting Recruitment : Environment Affecting Recruitment The Technological Environment
New technologies create new jobs. The existing jobs undergo a rapid change. As a result, applicants with unusual combination of skills and knowledge must be found. The Liberalization Programme after 1991 brought about rapid changes in the fields of banking, electronics, telecommunications, automobiles, software and pharma industries, etc. Several old jobs have disappeared almost suddenly. At the same time, there is a chronic shortage of people with requisite skills and knowledge especially in the fields of software, telecommunication, insurance, etc. In such a scenario companies have to step up their recruitment efforts to compete successfully for a small number of suitable candidates.
The Political Environment
Political compulsions, constitutional provisions covering reservations for special groups, providing employment to "sons of the soil" especially in states like Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Arunachal Pradesh; offering jobs to displaced persons whose lands have been acquired in order to set up projects of national importance - also come in the way of recruiting people, based solely on qualifications, skills and experience. Factors such as influence of unions, recommendations of friends and relatives of management also play an important role in influencing recruitment policies followed by a firm. Environment Affecting Recruitment : Environment Affecting Recruitment The Legal Environment
The different legislative policies governing child labor, night shift work, bonded labor, contract labor, reservation, 'sons of the soil' have brought the legal environment to be a major item to be looked into carefully by all companies intending to recruit people for various positions. Let us examine the issues more elaborately:
The Factories Act, 1948: The Act prohibits the employment of women (night work, underground work, carrying heavy loads, etc.) and child labor (below 14 years of age) in certain jobs
The Apprentices Act, 1961: The Act provides for a machinery to lay down syllabi and specify period of training, mutual obligations of apprentices and employees, etc. The responsibility for engagement of apprentice lies solely with the employer. The apprentice, after serving a contractual term of training, can be taken on regular rolls. The Act, as amended in 1986, provides for revised rates of compensation during the apprenticeship period and for failure on the part of the employer to execute the terms of the contract. Environment Affecting Recruitment : Environment Affecting Recruitment The Employment Exchanges Act, 1959: The Act requires all employers to notify the vacancies arising in their establishments to prescribed employment exchange before they are filled. The Act covers all establishments in Public Sector and nonagricultural establishments employing 25 or more workers in the private sector.
The Contract Labor Act, 1970: The Act is applicable to every establishment (contractor) employing 20 or more persons. It tries to regulate the employment conditions of contract labor in certain establishments and also provides for the abolition of contract labor in certain circumstances.
Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, 1976: The Act provides for the abolition of bonded labor (system of forced labor to liquidate debts payable to parties who are bent on exploiting the vulnerability of the victim) or his family members.
The Child Labor Act, 1986: The Act prohibits the employment of children below 14 years of age in certain employments. This has become a serious issue in India recently when German firms refused to accept carpets exported from Uttar Pradesh, objecting to the employment of child labor in the carpet industry. Slide 8: FOR MORE USEFUL EDUCATIONAL PRESENTATIONS AND TECHNOLOGICAL DOCUMENTATIONS LIKE THESE