CONSTRUCTION : CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION SITE SURVEY email@example.com INTODUCTION : INTODUCTION CONSTRUCTION SITE SURVEY Land Surveying Soil Testing to determine the differences in elevation
position to know the soil strength to support different load firstname.lastname@example.org Site Map : Site Map email@example.com Land Surveying : Land Surveying Plotting Contour Land Boundaries Lot 6, 25.184 ac firstname.lastname@example.org Levelling : Levelling Method to determine the height of a point on the earth surface from datum
To obtain cross section and profile plans for the proposed construction site.
Imaginary level point on earth surface
Eg. Sea level email@example.com Levels : Levels A level is a tool to determine the difference in height between two point. firstname.lastname@example.org Tilting level and its components : Tilting level and its components Telescope Air bubble tube Bubble mirror Pivot and spindle Eyepiece lens Telescopic horizontal axis Telescopic focusing screw Round air bubble Tilting screw Clamp screw Telescopic base axis Adjusting footscrew email@example.com Types of tilting level : Types of tilting level Optical Level Digital Level Auto Focus Level Precise Level firstname.lastname@example.org Levelling Staff : Levelling Staff 1.6 1.5 email@example.com Levelling Technique : Levelling Technique datum h1 h2 h A B Lavelling staff Lavelling staff Reduced level at point A (HA) Reduced level at point B (HB) Collimation line Level h = h1 – h2 HB = HA + h firstname.lastname@example.org Different Levelling Area : Different Levelling Area 0.590 1.860 1.415 1.085 1.365 2.655 2.815 2.440 0.535 email@example.com Levelling Documentataion : Levelling Documentataion firstname.lastname@example.org Levelling Plotting : Levelling Plotting Reduced level Chainage Imaginary datum
85.000 email@example.com Practical Soil Work : Practical Soil Work Every area has different types of soil.
Different soil have different bearing capacity (strength to support load).
Different soil have different properties and characteristics.
Type of soil can be determined by conducting several test. firstname.lastname@example.org Slide 15: 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 loam clay
foam sandy day
day clay sandy loam silt silt loam silt clay
clay percent clay percent silt percent sand loamy
sand sand email@example.com Soil Gradation Test (Sieve Analysis) : Soil Gradation Test (Sieve Analysis) Purpose
To find out the percentage of silt, sand and gravel in soil
Dry soil sample firstname.lastname@example.org Soil Investigation : The work : Soil Investigation : The work email@example.com Sieve analysis data : Sieve analysis data firstname.lastname@example.org Slide 19: FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE SILT SAND GRAVEL HYDROMETER SIEVE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION Soil mass that passed through the sieve % Cumulative total email@example.com Slide 20: FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE SILT SAND GRAVEL HYDROMETER SIEVE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION Soil mass that passed through the sieve % Cumulative total firstname.lastname@example.org Slide 21: FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE FINE MEDIUM COARSE SILT SAND GRAVEL HYDROMETER SIEVE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION Soil mass that passed through the sieve % Cumulative total 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle size analysis Good grade soil
contain wide range in particle
uniform curve & lies across Poor grade soil
- mix of silt and gravel
- Particle size between 0.2 & 0.6 Very poor grade soil
- sand type
- Almost same type of particle email@example.com Soil characteristics : Soil characteristics Adhesive
consists of fine particles that
Wet : bond together.
Dry : become hard solid.
eg. Clay and silt.
consists of multiform particle that won’t bond if there are water exist.
eg. sand and gravel firstname.lastname@example.org Slide 23: email@example.com Soil characteristics : Soil characteristics Air content Moisture content Organic matter content Soil particle Pocket Large particle create large pocket and the particle become loose Water content High water content (moisture) of soil has low bearing capacity Organic matter decay easily.
The decay of organic matter creates air pocket and filled with air and water.
High organic matter of soil has low bearing capacity. firstname.lastname@example.org