Lect#5 Utilitarianism

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Utilitarianism is the moral doctrine that we should always act to produce the greatest possible balance of good over bad :

Utilitarianism is the moral doctrine that we should always act to produce the greatest possible balance of good over bad By good, utilitarian understand happiness or pleasure. According to them an action is right if it produces the greatest happiness of all.

The major exponents of utilitarianism were Jeremy Bentham and John staurt Mill.in the 18th and 19th century.:

The major exponents of utilitarianism were Jeremy Bentham and John staurt Mill.in the 18 th and 19 th century. Bentham argued that an action is right if they promote the greatest human welfare, wrong if they do not.

An action is morally right if the net benefits over costs are greater for all affected, compared with the net benefits of all over possible choices.:

An action is morally right if the net benefits over costs are greater for all affected, compared with the net benefits of all over possible choices. An action is morally right if its immediate and future direct and indirect benefits are greatest for each individual.

Six points about utilitarianism. 1. When a utilitarian advocates happiness, we must consider unhappiness and pain as well and the units of happiness.:

Six points about utilitarianism. 1. When a utilitarian advocates happiness, we must consider unhappiness and pain as well and the units of happiness. 2. Actions effect people to different degrees but we have to check the net happiness.

3. Though utilitarians prefer good results whatever you do but the results should be happiness in greater number in relation to unhappiness.:

3. Though utilitarians prefer good results whatever you do but the results should be happiness in greater number in relation to unhappiness. 4. Utilitarians wish to maximize happiness not simply immediately but in the long run as well.

5. We do not show for sure that what will be the consequences of our actions but we must act so that the expected or likely happiness is as great as possible.:

5. We do not show for sure that what will be the consequences of our actions but we must act so that the expected or likely happiness is as great as possible. 6. We cannot ignore our own pleasure and happiness at any cost they equally calculated with other’s pleasure.

Utilitarianism in organizational context. Several features make it appealing as a standard for moral decisions in business or non-business organizations.:

Utilitarianism in organizational context. Several features make it appealing as a standard for moral decisions in business or non-business organizations. Utilitarians provide a clear and straightforward basis for formulating and testing policies and do not ask us to accept policies blindly.

Utilitarianism provide an objective and attractive way of resolving conflicts of self interest.:

Utilitarianism provide an objective and attractive way of resolving conflicts of self interest. They provide a flexible and result oriented approach to moral decision making.

Critical inquiries of Utilitarianism. 1. Is it really workable? How to choose in the alternative actions that which one will maximize happiness for people? How to compare levels of happiness and unhappiness? Is there enough time with the people to make these calculations? :

Critical inquiries of Utilitarianism. 1. Is it really workable? How to choose in the alternative actions that which one will maximize happiness for people? How to compare levels of happiness and unhappiness? Is there enough time with the people to make these calculations?

2. Are some actions wrong even if they produce good? Utilitarianism is also based on the results of an action. Action is not objectionable but only results are objectionable. Some actions maximize happiness but still they are immoral. Eg. A dying old woman or your servant. Utilitarians permit immoral actions if they maximize happiness. :

2. Are some actions wrong even if they produce good? Utilitarianism is also based on the results of an action. Action is not objectionable but only results are objectionable. Some actions maximize happiness but still they are immoral. Eg. A dying old woman or your servant. Utilitarians permit immoral actions if they maximize happiness.

3. Is utilitarianism unjust? How will you justify to sacrifice happiness of few people? What is the criteria to select the benefits of the people?:

3. Is utilitarianism unjust? How will you justify to sacrifice happiness of few people? What is the criteria to select the benefits of the people?