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Comenius Project Meeting “Steps towards Safer & Healthier European Citizens” Kos, Greece 13-18 October 2014:

COMENIUS PROJECT 2013-2015 “Through small steps to giant leaps – my contribution to a united Europe” Comenius Project Meeting “Steps t owards Safer & Healthier European Citizens” Kos, Greece 13-18 October 2014


Τ he psychological development of the adolescent Maria Drosou Psychologist

What is adolescence:

What is adolescence Adolescence is a word that comes from the Latin verb adolescere meaning: " I come to maturity " - "to grow up .“   Adolescence is the period of growth between the late years of childhood and the beginning of adulthood (11-18 years) It ends to the point where the boy and the girl have conquered their identity , have shaped their individuality and have reached a sufficient degree of psychological independence from their parents.

Stages of psychosocial development:

Stages of psychosocial development EARLY (11-13 years) Teenagers are developing a new self-image . They need to make use of their new skills of logical thinking and ability to make judgments rationally.  - Psychologically : egocentric period ,  the teenager is very concerned about the body changes    - Socially : Relationships with peers of the same gender, platonic love interest, perhaps starts to experiment with smoke, drugs and alcohol

Stages of psychosocial development:

Stages of psychosocial development INTERMEDIATE (14-16 years) Teens try to loosen their bond to their parents . Their emotions and intellectual capacities increase. They bec ome adventuresome, and experiment with different ideas.   - Psychologically : Explore limits , looking for identity,seeking autonomy, relationships with peers are  very important,  confronting parents  - Socially : Erotic interesting and possibly initiation of sexual activity , pressure by  kids of same age ( peer pressure ), risky behaviours .

Stages of psychosocial development:

Stages of psychosocial development LATE(17+ years)   Adolescent should, by this time, have established a balance between their aspirations, fantasies, and reality. They should be displaying concern for others through giving and caring. At the conclusion of late adolescence they should have had designed or discovered their role in society , have set a realistic goal in life, and have begun to achieve it.   -Psychologically: Autonomy , reconciliation with parents. - Socially: Mature romantic and social relationships ; reducing risky behaviour   

What are teenagers afraid of ?:

What are teenagers afraid of ? Α) Fear of their physical growth and development Β) Fear of their sexual ability  

Teenage mood changes:

Teenage mood changes Anger, sadness, loneliness, boredom, feeling that they are watched constantly feelings that misfortune only happens to others illusion of invulnerability    Why they feel like that? Hormones Changes in physical appearance


Depression Whereas it is highly unusual for a child to become depressed, in teenage years the frequency of depression does begin to rise . The causes of teenage depression could be anything from a genetic predisposition , to stress and difficulties in family relationships

Self esteem:

Self esteem Self-esteem is your thoughts and feelings about yourself The feelings about yourself may change fastly and can cause severe distress and anxiety, but baseline self-esteem remains highly stable across teenage years Girls are most likely to enjoy high self-esteem when they have supportive relationships with friends Boys are more likely to enjoy high self-esteem from their ability to successfully influence their friends

Relationships :

Relationships T he relationships teenagers have with their : Family Peers( kids of same age) Members of their social sphere play a very important role in their social development

Relationships with parents :

Relationships with parents The home environment and parents are important for the behaviors and choices of teenagers Kids who have a good relationship with their parents are less likely to engage in various risk behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, fighting, and/or unprotected sexual activity Parents also influence the education of their children. Support and encouragement from a “good” parent motivates the kid to complete his/her education sucessfully

Relationships with parents :

Relationships with parents When children go through their teenage years, there is often a significant increase in parent-child conflict. Arguments and fights between teenagers and their parents often concern minor issues of control: acceptable clothing and hair time of return at home adolescent's right to privacy Parents and teenagers also fight because Friends’ opinion is more important than parents’ Parents worry about the threats of social media

Relationships with siblings (brothers and/ or sisters) :

Relationships with siblings (brothers and/ or sisters) In same-sex sibling pairs, (brother and brother/ sister and sister) intimacy increases during early adolescence, then remains stable. Mixed-sex siblings pairs(brother and sister) act differently; siblings drift apart during early adolescent years (11-13), but experience an increase in intimacy starting at middle adolescence (14-17) .

Divorce :

Divorce Divorce during the period of adolescence can be a traumatic life event for the kid The child is often a viewer of anger and disputes between parents In extreme cases of instability and abuse in homes, divorce can have a positive effect on families and teenagers Some children of bad divorces, make less progress in their math and social studies performance over time Parental divorce during childhood or adolescence continues to have a negative effect in the romantic relationships and conflict style of the kid , when this kid will become an adult in his or her twenties and early thirties.

Friends :

Friends Peer groups (kids of same age) are especially important during adolescence Teenagers hang out with friends of the opposite sex much more than in childhood Teenagers use friends as coping devices with social stresses Friend groups offer teenagers the opportunity to develop social skills such as empathy, sharing, and leadership Peer groups can have positive influences on a teenager, such as on academic motivation and performance

“Friends” :

“Friends” But “friends” can also be a negative influence, when they encourage other kids to experiment with drugs, drinking, vandalism, and stealing

Friends :

Friends Teenagers often associate in cliques ,(groups) exclusive single-sex groups ( only boys/only girls ) of peers with whom they are particularly close Despite the common notion that cliques have negative influence, they may help kids become more sociable and form a stronger sense of identity . Within a group of highly athletic male-peers, for example, the group may create a stronger sense of fidelity and competition. Groups of friends also have become somewhat as a "collective parent," i.e. telling the adolescents what to do and not to do Towards late adolescence (16+), cliques often merge into mixed-sex groups as teenagers begin romantically engaging with one another

Social network:

Social network 73% of 12–17 year olds reported having at least one social networking profile Two-thirds (68%) of teens text every day Half (51%) visit social networking sites daily 11% send or receive tweets at least once every day. 34% of teens visit their main social networking site several times a day . 23% of teens are "heavy" social media users , meaning they use at least two different types of social media each and every day

Social network:

Social network Electronic communication negatively affects teens' social development, replaces face-to-face communication , damages their social skills, and can sometimes lead to unsafe and dangerous interaction with strangers . Online socializing tends to make girls particularly vulnerable , while socializing in Internet cafés seems only to affect boys’ academic achievement . Internet use has a negative effect on the physical health of teenagers , as time spent using the Internet replaces time doing physical activities. On the other hand Internet communication brings friends closer and is beneficial for socially anxious teens, who find it easier to interact socially online. The Internet can also be significantly useful in educating teens because of the access they have to information on many various topics.

PowerPoint Presentation:

  ” Who am I” I am myself , I have an opinion of my own , I am capable of thinking right and acting right I respect and accept myself just the way I am and I can take good care of myself I enjoy human relationships and I can create emotional bonds with others I have a sense of humor I accept reality just the way it is I am interested in social problems and I accept the obligations and tasks that I have as a member of this society I can stand a certain degree of loneliness I shape my own beliefs and values and I don’t accept always the common sense I can adjust in different situations I respect the rights and ideas of other people

PowerPoint Presentation:

Enjoy these beautiful teenage years, because they only come once in your life Thank you for your attention :-)

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