HIV 2

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COMENIUS MEETING KOS OCOBER 2014

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Comenius Project Meeting “Steps towards Safer & Healthier European Citizens” Kos, Greece 13-18 October 2014 Dr. Maria Ioannidou:

COMENIUS PROJECT 2013-2015 “Through small steps to giant leaps – my contribution to a united Europe” Comenius Project Meeting “Steps t owards Safer & Healthier European Citizens” Kos, Greece 13-18 October 2014 Dr. Maria Ioannidou

HIV/ AIDS The 21st century pandemic :

HIV/ AIDS The 21 st century pandemic PREVENTION OF AIDS

A Acquired :

3 A Acquired

A Acquired I Immuno :

4 A Acquired I Immuno

A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency :

5 A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency

A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency S Syndrome :

6 A Acquired I Immuno D Deficiency S Syndrome

H Human :

7 H Human

H Human I Immunodeficiency :

8 H Human I Immunodeficiency

H Human I Immunodeficiency V Virus:

9 H Human I Immunodeficiency V Virus

H Human I Immunodeficiency V Virus:

10 H Human I Immunodeficiency V Virus

Basic Definitions And Meanings :

11 Basic Definitions And Meanings What is HIV ? HIV is “ Human Immunodeficiency Virus ”,it is the virus that cause AIDS. Human means that it affects only humans and lives only in humans. The virus does not live in toilets, mosquitoes, cups, spoons, on bed sheets or towels that people with HIV might have used. Immunodeficiency refers to lack(deficiency) or breakdown of immune system. The “immune system” is the body’s resistance or the body’s defense force for fighting off infections.

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12 The virus attacks and eventually overcomes the body’s immune system. The immune system is usually able to defend the body against infections. A virus is a germ. What is AIDS ? AIDS means “ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ” To acquire means to “get or develop over a period of time” The immune system breaks down gradually over time.

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13 HIV VIRUS

The Origin of AIDS and HIV:

14 The Origin of AIDS and HIV HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV. HIV probably entered the United States around 1970.the first recognized case of AIDS was in the early 1980s. HIV is a lentevirus (slow virus),which in turn is a part of a larger group of viruses known as retro virus

Epidemiology :

15 Epidemiology Males>females Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups

HIV Transmission:

19 HIV Transmission HIV enters the bloodstream through: Open Cuts Breaks in the skin Mucous membranes Direct injection

Routes of Transmission of HIV:

20 Routes of Transmission of HIV Sexual Contact: Male-to-male Male-to-female or vice versa Female-to-female Blood Exposure: Injecting drug use/needle sharing Occupational exposure Transfusion of blood products Perinatal : Transmission from mother to baby Breastfeeding

Routes of Transmission of HIV:

21 Routes of Transmission of HIV Occupational Transmission Health care worker/ hospital staff Laboratory workers Other routes Organ transplantation Artificial insemination Needle-prick

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22

HIV Transmission:

23 HIV Transmission Common body fluids that are means of transmission: Blood Semen Vaginal Secretions Breast Milk

HIV in Body Fluids:

24 HIV in Body Fluids Semen 11,000 Vaginal Fluid 7,000 Blood 18,000 Amniotic Fluid 4,000 Saliva 1 Average number of HIV particles in 1 ml of these body fluids

Window Period:

26 Window Period This is the period of time after becoming infected when an HIV test is negative. 90 percent of cases test positive within three months of exposure 10 percent of cases test positive within three to six months of exposure

Signs And Symptoms:

27 Signs And Symptoms The clinical consequence of HIV infection comprises of a spectrum ranging from an acute syndrome with primary infection to a prolonged asymptomatic stage to adanced disease. Incubation period: 2 to 10 yrs.

The Acute HIV Syndrome:

28 The Acute HIV Syndrome Follows 3-6 wks following primary infection

Signs And Symptoms:

29 Signs And Symptoms Second phase- Asymptomatic contact Initial HIV inf. or after illness of inf. No symptoms Last 2 to 10 yrs.

Signs And Symptoms:

30 Signs And Symptoms Third phase- PGL (Persistent Generalized Lymphadenopathy) Enlargement of lymph nodes. outside the inguinal area more than 2 areas more that 3 months

Signs And Symptoms:

31 Signs And Symptoms Fourth phage-Overt Manifestation of AIDS ARC(AIDS-related complex): fever, loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea plus PGL Nervous system symptoms: headache, convulsion, paralysis, progressive dementia Rare opportunistic infection. Unusual malignant tumors. Pneumonia.

HIV Infection And Antibody Response :

32 HIV Infection And Antibody Response Infection Occurs AIDS Symptoms Initial Stage---------------- -------- Intermediate or Latent Stage- ------------- --- Illness Stage Flu-like Symptoms Or No Symptoms Symptom-free < ---- ----

Common manifestation of AIDS :

33 Common manifestation of AIDS Lung infection: P. Carinii pneumonia Gastrointestinal infection: candidiasis of mouth or oesophagus Skin infection: Kaposi’s sarcoma - red or violet macules or papules Central nervous System Infection: Toxoplasmosis Dementia Meningitis Primary CNS Lymphomas. Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy.

Extreme Wt loss:

34 Extreme Wt loss Lymphadenopathy

AIDS Worldwide:

35 AIDS Worldwide

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

36 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Risk factors Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV, but you're at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you: Have unprotected sex with multiple partners. Unprotected sex means having sex without using a new latex or polyurethane condom every time. Have unprotected sex with someone who is HIV-positive. Have another sexually transmitted disease, such as syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis . Share needles during intravenous drug use. Received a blood transfusion or blood products before 1985.

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

37 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS If mother is HIV positive, 100% of children will test positive at birth Breast feeding increases transmission rate

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

38 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body. HIV-negative Individual prevention: Educate yourself and others. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Use a clean needle. Be cautious about blood products. Get regular screening tests.

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

39 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS HIV positive individual prevention: Follow safe-sex practices. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. Tell others who need to know. Don't share needles or syringes. Don't donate blood or organs. Don't share razor blades or toothbrushes. If you're pregnant, get medical care right away.

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“It is bad enough that people are dying of AIDS, but no one should die of ignorance.” 40

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

41 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Traditionally, prevention is described as being at three levels:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

42 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Traditionally, prevention is described as being at three levels:

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS:

43 Prevention Of HIV/AIDS Traditionally, prevention is described as being at three levels:

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44

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Preventing is better than treating: Hippocrates of Kos (460 - 377 BC)

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46 THANK YOU

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